Kraith Creator's Manual 
Vol. 1

Part One

Note: Compare this page to Kraith Collected Volume One -- we expect to have this file conformed to that format in the near future.   You will find editorial comments regarding graphics and other adjustments to be inserted still embedded in the text.   To be notified of upgrades to these pages, please subscribe to kraith-l.  

(RBW Note. The cover is made of yellow, thicker paper. The inner pages are on brown paper with black printing. I later found out that not all copies of this book were in this format. This is also mentioned in the Editorís Foreword.)



Another Vulcan Ceremonial Cup design -- each is unique



vol. 1

(RBW Note. The inside paper is of normal weight, but is brown (darker than tan, but not as dark as a brown crayola, but more like dark sand, or sienna. The pages look like they were originally in portrait format and probably double sided, but now they are reduced to put two portrait pages on one landscape page. This doesnít help the page count since they used only one side of the paper. The three holes are at the top of the page. This makes the landscape pages in two columns.)


MANUAL vol. 1

Second Edition April 1975


Authorís Foreword ----------------------------------- 2/2

Editorís Foreword ----------------------------------- 3/1

Carol Lynn

Open Letter ---------------------------------------- 4/2

PART I: Character Development

The Kirk/Spock Relationship ------------------- 5/3

The Spock/TíAniyeh Relationship --------------- 7/4

The Ssarsun Biography ------------------------- 9/5

PART II: Background -- Theoretical

In Defense of TíYuzeti ------------------------ 14/8

The Vulcan Realms ----------------------------- 26/14

A Trisomic Model for Kataytikhe Genetics ------- 28/15

John Benson

Beads and Rattles ------------------------------ 32/17

Vulcanur Sememics ------------------------------ 34/18

PART III: Background -- Story Detail

The Culling Flame ------------------------------ 50/26

The Joys of Vulcan ----------------------------- 53/27

Humor ------------------------------------- 55/28

Celebration ------------------------------- 59/30

PART IV: Story Outlines

The Linger Death ------------------------------- 64/32

The Lesson ------------------------------------- 65/33

PART V: Kraith Exchange

The Letter File -------------------------------- 68/35

Kraith Creators Roster ------------------------- 75/38

Recommended Reading ---------------------------- 77/34

Unless otherwise indicated the author is Jacqueline Lichtenberg.

(RBW Note. The bottom of this portion of the page is in two columns inside the one column.)


EDITORS: Carol Lynn

Debbie Goldstein

TYPING: Carol Lynn

Debbie Goldstein


Carol Lynn

Debbie Goldstein

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TITLES: John Benson

COVER: Robbie Brown


Janice: p. 45/23

Elizabeth Dailey:

pp. 52/none, 54/27

55/28, 59/30

Doug Herring: p.7

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Peace and Greetings,

By now you have probably noticed that the layout of this Ďzine differs radically from the layout of both the Kraith Collected and the first printings of the Creators Manual. Although this was done for numerous reasons, they all boil down to one. Chiefly: money. The cost of printing has risen to such an extent that I can no longer afford to print the Creators Manual full size, although I have retained the printing-on-one-side-only format.

The contents of this zine are a hodge-podge of articles and letters designed to elucidate some of the more elusive background ideas of the Kraith Series. Like Tolkien, I can say that Kraith has "grown in the telling". When I first offered to publish the series it contained 5 written and three proposed main stories and five sub-stories. Jacqueline estimated that the completed series would run to 500,000 words I think I can safely say that she has long surpassed that goal.

Although the Kraith Round Robins now fill some of the needs of the Creators, if the letters I receive are any indication, there is still a need for the Kraith Creators Manuals. The second Manual is on the drawing board and will be printed eventually, so donít loose faith yet.

The fanzine fund for Kraith has proven to be self-perpetuating so as long as there are people who are willing to write and buy Kraith I will continue to publish.


(Signed) Carol Lynn

Carol Lynn


The KRAITH CREATORS MANUAL is available from:

Carol Lynn (address omitted for website purposes) cost:

$1.50 - 4th class postage

$2.36 - 1st class postage

Printed by Modern Printing, Northland, Southfield, Michigan.

2004 availability pending from Agent With Style

Fondly dedicated to the IBM typewriter repairman who never did come to fix the n, t, and h keys that donít type until they have been used several hundred times, the a key that sticks, and the ribbon holder that doesnít,

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You will notice that most of the wordage in this volume is under my own by-line. We hope the next volume will be better balanced. It should not be difficult to place a contribution with the Kraith Creatorís Manual.

Letters that have passed between Kraith Creators during the roughing out of a story should be sent to Carol Lynn for editing. Background ideas on stories youíve written can be worked up into articles for the Manual, telling other Creators some of the things you had in mind but didnít get around to spelling out in the story. Story outlines or story ideas for Kraith stories that you would like to see somebody else write can be sent to the Manual for publication. Perhaps somebody will write them for you. LoCs you have received on Kraith stories youíve had published, and questions on points that confuse you are also of interest to the other Kraith Creators. Articles explaining or criticizing any aspect of the Kraith background are also possible contributions. (All decisions on what to publish are Carol Lynnís. She has the final say.)

There are many stories yet to be written in the Kraith Series. The only characters whose ultimate fate has been completely decided by one or another Creator are: Spock, Kirk McCoy, Ssarsun, TíPau, TíAniyeh, and SíDarmeg. That leaves Scotty, Chekov, Chapel, Sulu, etc., plus all the originally Kraithish characters such as TíUriamne, Admiral Pesin, and hoards of cameo roles. There is plenty of room for original characters designed to illustrate some point, and there is room for a number of sub-series. We havenít touched upon the family of Amanda and all the human relatives that Spock must have somewhere, however distant. There are whole areas of Vulcan culture that are totally unexplored, and there is the entire pageant of Vulcan history to develop.

Rusty Hancock has begun to open up the area of Vulcan pre-history with a story set at the time of the first kataytikhe. As yet we do not have a numbering convention to deal with that part of the Kraith Series, so if anybody has a suggestion, please tell us.

Ruth Berman has come up with a story that fits in between Kraith IIIB and IIIC. It has tentatively been decided to label that story Kraith IIIB(1). It is a "ps" immediately following the story "Coup de Grace," and is titled "Coup de Partie."

The Series grows more complicated every day. We now have five unpublished stories: "Coup de Partie", "Spockís Initiative" Kraith IIE, "Ssarsunís Argument" Kraith IF, "Secret of Groskin" Kraith IIIC, and Rusty Hancockís "From the Time of the Beginning."

The cross references that will tell Creators in which stories their particular characters appear have not been constructed. Is there someone out there who would like the post of Kraith Indexer?


(Signed) Jacqueline Lichtenberg

Jacqueline Lichtenberg


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A point has been raised by one of the Kraith Critics, and I would like to take this opportunity to tell you about it.

In Kraith there is a recurrent pattern to which some people have reacted positively. It is now under question whether this pattern is the source of much of the antagonism toward Kraith.

The pattern consists of an introduction of some new facet of an alien (usually Vulcan) culture couched in language which is highly ambiguous, but which is normally interpreted at face value. Later in the Series, it becomes apparent that the face-value interpretation is incorrect.

Example, many times we are shown Vulcan ceremonies. The narration is in the language normally used to describe rituals and the overall impression (deliberately fostered) is of some sort of mystical rite.  Later the explanations for the actions gradually emerge, and the reader discovers that there is nothing even remotely mystical about the activity.

A Kraith Critic has recently said that this later revelation leaves a "cheated" feeling, an acute discomfort, as if the author were not playing fair.

The question I would put to you is, "Do you feel cheated when learning that your initial interpretation is invalid?" Any discussion of this question would be appreciated.

The reason that this pattern is built into Kraith is that Kraith is attempting to point out the semantic fallacies inherent in interpreting the actions of aliens in terms of human standards. Kraith was originally conceived as a counter statement to the most prevalent type of fan-fiction presentation of Vulcan. It seemed that fans could not stretch their minds to see Vulcans in any other light than as anthropomorphic cripples deprived of "normal" emotional outlets.

True that aired ST did leave this question open. They presented data, but in most cases did not interpret it for you. The obvious interpretation which Hollywood no doubt wanted us to make was that Vulcans were simply humans with exotic customs. However, if we view the tv screen as a window into an actual tomorrow and attempt to observe like good xenologists, we MUST NOT project our own human-centered concepts onto genuine aliens. Kraith attempts to point out several other valid interpretations of aired STís basic data.

In order to do this, I have resorted to the ploy of inducing the reader to mistake my initial descriptions in exactly the same way that Hollywood induced you to mistake their descriptions. I then attempt to point out the disastrous consequences of such an error. Does this make you feel cheated? Or does it open new vistas for your mind to explore?


(Signed) Jacqueline Lichtenberg

Jacqueline Lichtenberg


"The father who guides not his child through the Year of Search will find the sands green at Koon-ut-kali-fee"

from the Book of Sources

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by Jacqueline Lichtenberg

The understanding of the value and strength of Kirkís character come not so much from what heís done on screen but from Spockís opinion of his worth.


(2004 note by Jacqueline Lichtenberg:  At the time Kraith adopted the Kirk/Spock notation, it did not imply any form of sexual relationship.  Today the usage has changed.  Therefore, Sime/Gen has become Sime~Gen.  Perhaps Kraith should adopt Kirk~Spock for our notation? )  

Spock is a personality that comes across strong, demanding respect, admiration, even jealousy . . . and he is the one who is the towering central figure of the Enterprise. But he holds Kirk in highest esteem, not just because heís the Captain and a Vulcan owes a peculiar loyalty to his superior officers, but because Kirk is a figure who, in his quiet way, commands a great deal of respect.

Kirk is actually a prime example of humanity. He has a peculiar sensitivity to people . . . the knack of command. The flavor of the inter-relations on a ship are a direct reflection of the captainís personality. The Enterprise boasts a crackerjack crew not just because they are tops in their fields, but also because they have a crackerjack captain who knows how to draw forth the best each man can give and then combine that best into a coherent whole.

It is this quality that Spock respects so much because it is the one quality he doesnít have naturally and would like to acquire. But he never will acquire it because it is the quality possessed by the "jacks-of-all-trades," the men who can do everything, but nothing well. Spock is the man who does everything and does it superlatively. Heís too good. The average genius wonít toe the mark for Spock because Spock is too good. A genius grows up being the best at everything he does. A human genius reacts negatively to someone who is as much above him as he is above his non-genius associates. A Vulcan genius just canít understand the nature of that very human negativism.

To a human, there is nothing more obnoxious than a person who is consistently right and knows it. To a Vulcan, any kind of consistency which adheres to logic is admirable . . . a Joy in itself.

The warm friendship between Kirk and Spock may well have begun because Kirk is not the kind of man who resents those who are consistently right and know it. Kirk, while not an intellectual genius himself, is a highly creative artist whose raw material is the genius. Throughout his pre-Enterprise career, Kirk came to understand the way the genius sees reality. But never before had he encountered such an artistís dream as the nearly perfect genius who is Spock. And, never before had Spock encountered a human who could understand him to the extent of inducing both his halves to cooperate in truly creative artistry. (Science is a creative art to those who have mastered its tools.)

While this may have been where the relationship began, it is not where it ended. In order to enjoy the pleasure of their friendship, each of the two men found it necessary to reach out across the gulf between cultures. In doing so, they came to realize that the gulf was far wider than the UFP had ever thought. The bridge that they built was a very personal bridge modified strongly by Spockís human heritage.

Of all the people that Spock had ever known, Kirk was the only one who seemed to understand the place his human heritage held in his overall adjustment to life. Likewise, of all the people Kirk had ever known, Spock was the only one who seemed to understand

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the loneliness of being different.

And, Kirk as a non-genius among geniuses, as one of the few men in creation who is an artist whose material is the genius, as a captain alone among his crew, as the youngest captain in the Fleet, as the best and youngest captain in the Fleet (a combination sure to arouse jealousy and envy and a certain resentment among his fellow humans) as a man without close family ties, is certainly one of the most lonely men whoíve ever lived.

Each of these men gave as much to their relationship as they received. Through this exchange, their relationship grew stronger through the years. Because of their very natures, each man was incapable of developing such a relationship with any other person. And, as every human knows instinctively, without such a relationship the soul withers and dies even though the body lives.

However, being men, they placed very severe limitations on the degree of closeness they could achieve. Metaphorically, each held the other at armís length. Women are better able to deal with the soul nourishing intangibles of life. Men are embarrassed by intense feelings, especially those directed at other men. Fear of such excruciating embarrassment caused both Spock and Kirk to try to inhibit the development of their friendship.

Events caused them to lose the battle. Many times, each saved the otherís life. And then, little by little, events of their personal lives began to obtrude. Kirk experienced episodes of extreme emotional attachment to several females, lost his brother and sister-in-law, was court-marshaled, while Spock met up with a woman from his past, was rejected by his "wife," became reconciled with his father, and had occasion to initiate mind-meld with Kirk and other non-Vulcans.

During all of this, the periods of increased closeness between the two were followed by periods of strict formality. Yet, the pattern had been set. We can only assume that it would continue into the "fourth" season and beyond.

If we step back and consider the meanings and implications of this unique friendship, we can ask some questions that generate viable drama. For example: Spockís family is "important" . . . what exactly is his position on Vulcan? High enough to affect the tides of history? If so, in what way will this unique friendship affect the course of Vulcan? What is Vulcanís position in the UFP? What do Vulcans think about humans and the UFP? Can Spock change their opinion? Would he want to?

The essence of fiction is CONFLICT. Hence, if Spock IS important enough to affect Vulcanís course, and if his relationship with Kirk has given him a different opinion than the Vulcan-on-the-street, then conflicts are set up which generate many superlative stories.



"Thy father taught thee of the hidden paths and waters, yet thee says thee walks the ways alone. Ye ever seek the Bloom, but the sands shall claim thee ere the coming of fire. Fool, thy ancestors nurtured thee, thy spouse takes thee, and who shall counsel thy children?"

from the Book of Fragments *

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by Jacqueline Lichtenberg

The key to understanding this strange relationship is complex. Basically it requires the grasp of the non-humanity of Vulcans. But that is not enough since TíAniyeh/Tanya is physiologically human.

Why did Spock choose Tanya?

After "Amok Time," Spock found himself in a peculiarly unstable condition and without many ties to eligible Vulcan females. His family, of course, could have aided in his search for a wife . . . but not unless he requested aid. He did not want to do so because after the mechanisms of Vulcan social stability had ground through that process of selection, he would have no logical recourse but to a accept the answer presented him.

His experience with his father had taught him that all Vulcans do not understand the peculiar needs (see, "Spock, Guardian of the Tradition") of a human/Vulcan hybrid. Upon researching the field of eligible females between the proper ages, he selected the one who seemed most likely to be capable of adjusting to him. TíZorel was too young. He was further encouraged by the fact that he knew her and her family slightly because at the time of her Naming he had been on the Naming Committee (only a boy at the time). They had kept in touch through the years so he expected to be accepted.

But, as told in MISSION, she turned him down the first and second times he asked. Why?

A variety of reasons. Not in order of importance, they may be taken to be: A. She did not want to inflict her own emotional instability on any Vulcan through the intimacy of a bonding. B. She did not realize the Bonding would affect her equally by alleviating her tendency towards destructive tantrums. C. She fully realized Spockís social position as a Kataytikh of the First Realm and felt unequal to the chore of being the wife of such a one. Further, she felt that Vulcanís future would be better assured if Spockís children had a Vulcan mother. D. She cherishes Spock in such a way that she wants his happiness more than her own. This is not love in the true sense, though it is often a symptom of love. She knows that he will outlive her in the normal course of events and does not want him to have to undergo such a parting. She does not feel capable of providing for him in the way he must demand; nor does she feel capable of raising his children since she is given to emotional tantrums.

Why did she finally agree to the Bonding?

A. The immediate reason was the presence of children who required an adult with inner tranquility to guide them. She came to realize that Spockís non-Bonded state was a source of discord which prevented his caring for the children and which was interfering with his ability to think about his problem in logic. B. She gradually came to realize how the situation came to look from his viewpoint. As she declared in MISSION, she would never abandon him in a moment of need. C. She came to realize her own need for a deeper sexual relationship. D. She could NEVER attain such a relationship with a human.

(See the "Tanya Entry")

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Why could she never achieve such a relationship? She was raised by Vulcans who did not give her love, but security. She was introduced to human relatives who gave her "love" in a loathsomely hypocritical way. Thus she became afraid of love for it was associated with "threat" and "pain" and a destruction of the security which was all she really had to base her pre-school years on.

She became very uncomfortable with the idea of living with a man who was unstable because of an illogical emotional attachment to her. This was the only prospect available to her when Sauk refused to mate her in the Vulcan Bonding. She became quite literally afraid of human love because it was human "love" which precipitated a mental breakdown when she was four years old.

However, the idea of living with a man who is totally devoted to her welfare but who is not prone to illogical actions based on love for her became quite attractive after Spock suggested the union. She knew he was Vulcan enough to keep their relationship in the Vulcan man/wife mode -- devoid of love, but rich with many more meaningful nuances -- but she also knew that he was human enough to understand her failings and allow for them.

This situation would provide both the unshakable Vulcan security that she had learned to depend on in childhood and the element of a sexual relationship.

In accepting Spockís offer, she learned that he had faith in her ability to cope with the problems their union would bring about. She is human enough to be able to draw strength from that faith.

She regards her union with Spock as a sort of safe-haven from the dreadful possibility of any emotional entanglements with humans. She does not love Spock, but she does harbor many mixed emotions regarding him. She is incapable of love and in this respect she is crippled as a human being. But it is the kind of debility that cannot be corrected without causing worse damage. She knows compassion both in the logical mode and in the emotional mode. She laughs; she cries; she knows fury, resentment, anger, fear, and envy. She understands the Vulcan attitude towards emotion well enough to know just how far she can apply it to herself. But in many ways she is emotionally immature as a human. This rarely shows in her actions, though, because she acts always under the strict regimen of the Vulcan value structure.

If her relationship with Spock were to be summed up in one word it would be "trust." They trust each other because their actions regarding one another are predictable.

In this union, they have both found an adjustment to life which, while not stable or enduring, is acceptable. It is not stable because both of them are involved in a high risk occupation. The probability that one or the other will be killed in the line of duty within the next twenty years is high enough to warrant the "unstable" designation. It is not an enduring relationship because, given survival, Spock will outlive her by a significant margin even if his human genes shorten his lifespan somewhat. Nevertheless, it is an adjustment with which they are both comfortable.

A case can be made for the similarity between Tanyaís psychological condition and that of "frigid" human females . . . however, it is not Tanyaís inability to establish social intercourse that produce the overt symptoms of frigidity and it is an oddly selective frigidity excluding only non-Vulcan males. She relates well to non-Vulcan males who consider her an untouchable Vulcan female.

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by Jacqueline Lichtenberg

It is difficult to discuss a personís biography without knowing something about the culture from which he springs. I will try here to give would-be Kraith Creators a minimal grasp of all these converging factors by discussing Ssarsun.

Ssarsunís three parents came to Vulcan just before Schillia joined the Federation. Between the three of them, they had a full command of all the knowledge of Schillian merchants . . . a considerable and unusual intellectual accomplishment. The reason they left Schillia for Vulcan was to found and nurture a business alliance with a Vulcan firm.

Since Vulcans regard property ownership quite differently than humans and most others, it is difficult to describe the nature of a Vulcan firm. One could call it a family-corporation and have a useful analogy provided one did not strain the analogy too far. The Vulcan firm is involved in transportation and import-export. They own and operate a number of interstellar shipping lines. They operate a number of offices dealing in import-export which is a complex business on the interstellar scene. They employ lawyers, exo-botanists, exo-biologists, physicians, hordes of laboratory personnel, and an enormous computer-controlled dispatching and research corporation. The firm is, in essence, a conglomerate whose members all support one another for maximum efficiency. The firm employs thousands of non-Vulcans.

Among these non-Vulcans were Ssarsunís parents. They were sent by their employers to do a feasibility study on the merits of merging their Schillian conglomerate with the Vulcan one. The study reported positive results and contractual bridges were built. Ssarsunís parents decided they liked life in the interstellar community on Vulcan, and they stayed on as the liaison bridge between the two enormous firms.

Since the Schillians had been doing business with many worlds beyond and outside the Federationís jurisdiction, they continued to do so. The link between Schillian and Vulcan trade conglomerates provided a flow of Federation goods to outsiders and a flow of outside goods into the Federation. Both firms prospered unexpectedly, and the shares which Ssarsunís parents had owned in the Schillian business grew in value.

Then hard times arrived. But not before Ssarsunís parents had sold some of their stock in the Schillian firm and invested in the Federation stock market (or the equivalent analog). Some of the links between the two conglomerates were dissolved in the interests of economy. Ssarsunís parents had faith in the Vulcan management. They bought into the Vulcan firm . . . insisting on voting shares. Because the capital was needed, the Vulcans accepted the terms. Never before had voting stock in a family corporation been sold outside the family. But the Schillians had been with the firm for a number of years, and the Vulcans thought they would make good partners.

The Vulcans were right. With the Schillians working side-by-side with them, they made several fortunate choices and random chance favored them. The business once again grew strong until they rivaled the handful of other Vulcan trading and shipping firms that operated on the interstellar scene. But they were the only one with non-Vulcans in high management positions, full partners and co-owners.

As business turned good, Ssarsunís parents found they could now afford to send

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their child "home" for his education, and hopefully to find his mates. Mate-finding is difficult enough for bisexual races. For trisexuals it is confounding. It is especially difficult for telepathic trisexuals who live in a constant mind-meld.

Ssarsun returned to Vulcan to complete his higher education. The excuse he gave was that only on Vulcan could the unique, mathematical approach to sociology be found in its pure form. The real reason, plain as the iridescent scales on his skin, was that he was more Vulcan than Schillian.

During his formative years Ssarsun has lived in the interstellar community on Vulcan. There are no legal barriers forming the walls of this community, but the fact remains that very few Vulcans willingly go there while very few residents venture outside into the real Vulcan environment except on business.

But Ssarsunís parents were one of the first and oldest residents. Schillians are mixers by nature, and, while they do not move their homes as willingly as humans, they do range quite far from home as a matter of course. They were well aware that non-Vulcans were not exactly welcomed with enthusiasm outside the enclave, but they felt (not thought, felt) that they could not tolerate being shut away from the planetís mainstream. They had to stay on Vulcan, therefore, they had to become a part of Vulcan in some small way.

They chose to live in a small house near the edge of the interstellar zone. They were surrounded by rental units used by Vulcans with temporary business in the interstellar community. At first, Vulcans shied away from living so close to the Schillians, who are fabulously emotional people with strong gregarious instincts. But slowly, the Vulcans discovered that this family of Schillians minded their own mental business and kept the tenor of their emotional broadcasts down to bearable levels. In less than a year, Ssarsun was associating freely with the Vulcan children in the neighborhood, and he even attended some Vulcan classes. His main schooling, however, was at the enclaveís school; a common denominator Federation education.

For most of his childhood, Ssarsun knew only his parents and the few transient Schillians who passed through Vulcan. Many times these people would be guests in his parentsí house, but rarely did they bring their children. During his formative years, the Vulcan Schillian community oscillated between about 10 and 20 Schillians, mostly adults. His parents were the only permanent residents. But he was not lonely. As with most Schillians, he made friends readily. He was the most popular among the non-Vulcans and among the non-humans. Even in adolescence, he formed friendships without regard to sex. He was the natural confidant and go-between for his bisexual friends during their alliance forming experiments.

His own sexual identification, by some miracle, was impressed upon him at the appropriate age, and he never suffered any psycho-sexual derangements akin to homosexuality or impotence. But since his environment was far from "normal," his psychological development was also far from "normal" for his species. He was more comfortable in the small group melds of his childhood than in the tenuous and confusing melds of thousands of minds that are the norm on Schillia.

The incident that finally sent him "home" to Vulcan was of this sort. He had tried desperately to please his parents and fit himself into the cosmopolitan group-melds of the school where he was sent. He had tried very hard to adopt the attractive mannerisms (minute and undetectable to the human eye) of his sex. None knew so well as he just how much he had failed.

One day, he found himself cast in the role of Joiner of two meld-nets consisting of several hundred students each. He was supposed to form the link connecting both these

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groups . . . a position of considerable honor. But for him it was hell incarnate. In the end he dropped out of both nets, barricading himself in the privacy of his own mind and refusing contact with anyone until sensory deprivation nearly destroyed his sanity. Only unconsciousness caused his barriers to lower, for such barriers are unnatural to the Schillian mind. He had used Vulcan techniques . . . and his desire for mental privacy was partly based on his absorption of the Vulcan value system.

The school persuaded him to return to Vulcan. It wasnít difficult.

This incident may be regarded as the basis for Ssarsunís fondness for drinking himself insensate. There is a basic conflict between his cultural values and his physiological abilities. It is a minor problem, actually, and his psycho-profiles and Brain Circuitry Patterns are perfectly normal and healthy.

It was also after his return from Schillia that Ssarsun decided that Starfleetís highly mixed society would be the perfect place for him. From the outside, Starfleet appears to be thoroughly mixed. It is only after a few years of service that one begins to realize the extent of the segregation that is practiced in the name of comfort. Only slightly disillusioned, Ssarsun proceeded to found and execute a brilliant career in Security.

It was only after his contact with Spock (AFFIRMATION) that he realized how much he missed having Vulcans around . . . and noticed how carefully heíd been steered into M-II and M-III society. True he was more comfortable in ships and bases rigged for Ziturians and other amphibians where he could swim without getting inflamed gills from chlorine and chemical pool treatments; where he didnít have to use messy creams to keep his skin moist and his scales from falling off too fast (like people lose hair constantly). But he actually MISSED the hot, dry Vulcan air and the cool, dry Vulcan mind. He felt more relaxed and happy around Vulcans than any other people. He liked the others too, and Vulcans did have their drawbacks . . . but he found suddenly and to his own surprise, that he understood Vulcans better than any others, even Schillians.

He began to enjoy confounding humans and other emotional peoples with his pithy and shockingly casual interpretations of Vulcan cultural practices and patterns. He was the only one on Star Base IX who could make a joke about Vulcans without offending any listening Vulcans. (Being such sensitive telepaths, Schillians are constitutionally incapable of deliberate offense.) In fact, his tactless diplomacy saved more than one touchy situation by detonating laughter at the expense of the only ones who can really take it without getting violent. More than once, he used his unique method to inform the Vulcans that there was a misunderstanding in progress, and that the Vulcans were the worse offenders.

As maturity brought increased competence and widened horizons, Ssarsun discovered that he was dissatisfied with his career. He looked hard and long at the political situation in the Federation. Using the perspective he had gained through Spock (the most highly placed Vulcan heíd ever shared perceptions with), he began to see the trends and tides of history. He dug out texts on the mathematical sociology heíd studied on Vulcan and relearned everything he thought heíd known. The kataytikh and Guardian viewpoint heíd gained from Spock changed many of his opinions.

He could see now how the Federation and emotional peoples, humans in particular, were a real and grave threat to Vulcan. He began to see how non-humans and telepaths in particular were treated with a slight but very real "keep your distance" attitude. Even the humans themselves werenít aware of what they were doing . . . or no telepath could have missed it. The humans who were destroying Vulcan were doing so inadvertently, and could never be convinced that they were doing so.

And he began to arrive at the same conclusions that Spock came to-- the only way

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to salvage any fragment of Vulcanís form of sanity was to effect the Federation with non-human values as strongly as the Federation was affecting Vulcan and other non-human cultures (for Vulcan wasnít the only culture losing its identity).

Asking himself how one, particularly cosmopolitan, Schillian could best contribute to the "war effort" which Spock was mounting single handed, Ssarsun came to the conclusion that it was time for a Schillian, a non-human telepath, to move into the higher command echelons of Starfleet. He didnít know if he, himself, would be that person. It wouldnít really matter. But his role was, he decided, to begin to open that door to his colleagues.

He applied for and received an appointment to the Academy of Starfleet where he entered training for "command." It wasnít easy, particularly being the only Schillian on the base (there were other telepaths around, but always few and transient). The Federationís law that nobody could captain a vessel on the Federation routes (or in Starfleet) if they were in deep telepathic contact with another being, would always keep him below Command rank, but Ssarsun was playing Spockís hunch that such laws werenít long to live.

Eventually he worked his way up the chain of command of the smaller Starfleet ships until he was Second Officer of a survey craft . . . a flying laboratory that was three-quarters library computer and half auto-analysers. . . leaving little space for the crew. The crew consisted of the Captain, the Science Officer/ First Officer, Second Officer Lieutenant Commander (regained his rank) Ssarsun, Engineer and three engineering crewmen, Medical Officer and two assistants, Records Officer, Communications Officer, and thirty others who manned the laboratories. Forty-three in all, though the ship could accommodate 55 in an emergency.

Crew facilities were cramped and sparse by Starship standards, though the scientific potential of the little ship almost matched that of a Starship. Their main job was initial planetary surveys, and if their work turned up anything interesting, a Starship would be following. Ssarsunís usual assignment was navigator-helmsman and he shared quarters with the other navigator-helmsman so that they were never off-watch together, hence didnít interfere with each other much.

The only other Schillian aboard was the Records Officer, a civilian employee eager to get home and thoroughly miserable with the "life of adventure" that had seemed so romantic. The Records Officer, Hisotyr, was not of Ssarsunís sex but of the more vulnerable sex. He was acutely lonely for the mass-melds of Schillia, and constantly grasping for deeper contact with Ssarsun even though Ssarsunís mental attitudes were somewhat revolting.

Ssarsun too was repelled by Hisotyrís need for deep contact. Yet he was Schillian enough to sympathize, and that sympathy awakened instincts heíd hardly been aware he possessed. If there had been a third of the proper sex present, the triad would have gelled instantly. The absence of that third was both salvation and torture, until Hisotyr jumped ship and deserted. Since he was only a civilian employee, it wasnít a crime. The only penalty was financial, and Hisotyr would have gladly faced court martial to get off ship.

It will forever remain moot whether Hisotyr would have deserted Ssarsun to insanity by sensory deprivation, but fortunately his breaking point came as the ship took up orbit around Memory Alpha, there to disgorge accumulated statistics from the last five planets visited. And stationed on Memory Alpha there was a telepath who was also employed as a Records Officer.

Her name was Amy Bedford, and she was a citizen of Lythia . . . a breath of fresh air and sunshine to overtaxed emotions.

Here it might be well to say something about Schillian physiology. The only little

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problem is that not much is known about Schillian physiology. They are relatively new members of the Federation, having joined barely 25 years ago and having begun to establish free contact only about fifteen years ago when they gave the UFP the planet(oid) of BABEL to use as a neutral meeting grounds in diplomatic negotiations.

We know that they have two separate respiratory systems, both of which require exercise for health. They are susceptible to irritation of the mucous membranes from chlorinated water. They have two sets of nictating membranes which adjust their eyesight for both brightness and focus under water. They have webbed fingers as humans have clawed fingers . . . vestigially yet somewhat usefully. Their skin color changes markedly with the stages of maturity reached (not by race) being a very light, pinkish grey during childhood and shifting gradually through whitish grey during adolescence. At the age of maturity and mating, the skin tones take on a faint bluish caste.

If mates are taken at this time (which lasts for several years but finally does end) the skin tones become gradually a dull blackish grey. But if no mates are taken, the skin becomes ever so slightly greenish-yellow-grey with the grey still dominant. At this point it is no longer possible for the Schillian to mate. Many "career" type people choose not to mate and are respected in that choice provided it is made through the Oracle.

Schillians are extremely sensitive with regard to sex, preferring that all their sexes be given the same pronoun. They can tell each other apart at a glance but studiously refrain from acknowledging sex. The dominant culture subscribes to the one-mating-triad-per-lifetime ideals, but this is not physiological. Their passions both in and out of a triad are easily aroused and extreme. One should never joke about a Schillianís sexual habits (even memory of having made such a joke can be awkward when dealing with telepaths).

Schillian genetics are based on threes. They are triploid, to coin a phrase. There is no egg/sperm fertilization, but rather three cells which must come together to form a viable zygote. It is erroneous to label any one of the three "egg." During gestation, the foetus is passed from one parent to the other until all three have "carried," though there is one, particular sex which incubates to term, putting the most growth and weight on the foetus. However, this is not the same sex which concerns itself with the care of the home and the raising of the children. Ssarsun is of this child-raising sex. The sex that carries the foetus to term is not the vulnerable sex.

It is considered grave misconduct to allow sexual interest to develop in the absence of a third of the appropriate sex. Morals are a community affair among Schillians due to the meld-nets they hold.




"Fear not your ignorance of the universe; rather strive to enlarge it, for to know that one knows-not is also wealth incomparable."

from the Book of Imperatives

"And let thee not declare that the outsider is less than one among thy household. For does the clothing make the needs less imperative, or the speech, the bonding less complete."

from the Book of Life

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Drawing of a Schillian running

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by Jacqueline Lichtenberg


Would that TíYuzeti had been my mother!

And TíUriamne my sister.

Let Amanda be my fatherís wife.

But let her give life to no other.


TíYuzeti 3. was Sarekís first Wife. 1. She was the mother of TíUriamne, Spockís half sister. 1. She died leaving Sarek a widower at a very early age. 1. Let Her Memory Bring Peace.

According to Dorothy Fontana, writer and script consultant for Star Trek, Spockís father has been married only once . . . to Amanda. Spock is an only child. There are absolutely no other siblings. This assertion was made as of September 1967. In November of 1967, the Star Trek staff had still made no definite statement that the pon farr occurs at any specific age or at any specific interval. At that time, Miss Fontana asserted that Sarekís first pon farr may well have been at age 64. Spockís may occur earlier due to his half-human physiology. 4.

At a later date ("The Cloud Minders" see also reference6.), Spock asserts that the seven year cycle is inherent in all Vulcans, but that extreme feminine beauty is always disturbing. In The Making of Star Trek we learn that the seven year cycle is the maximum. Lesser intervals are expected for a male living among his family. And we learn that these intervals may be irregular or governed by unspecified factors.

Nevertheless, itís a severe physiological upset calling for maximal nerve stimulation. Very little can be inferred about Vulcan nerve relaxation times, however, it seems obvious that copulation could not recur with anything like the frequency observed in the human male.

Since it was stated that the seven year cycle is inherent in the Vulcan male, and nowhere is it tied to Vulcanís seasons or year, we can only make a reasonable guess as to what the minimum might be. For the purposes of this argument, let us assume that the period might, in a young, vigorous male, be accelerated to three times its maximum duration. That is pon farr might occur three times in seven years, or every 2 1/3 years (though the interval might be irregular). We will refer to this as the two year cycle. 5.

We have no direct, authoritative information regarding at what age pon farr can be expected to start. 6. To deduce this, we must go far afield and construct long and perhaps unjustifiably intricate chains of reasoning to fill in a background which has been left blank.

Therefore, let us outline our argument here so that we may keep our goals clearly in mind.

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I. First we will establish that in view of the seven year cycle, Miss Fontanaís earlier assertion that 60 might be a possible age for a first pon farr must be discarded.

II. We will establish that 30 is a more reasonable estimate.

III. We will establish that all Vulcan children are mated at an early age.

Then, given that first pon farr occurs around 30 years of age, and that all Vulcan male children are mated at an early age, it follows that Sarek was married previous to his marriage to Amanda. 7. However, it does not follow that there were any children by that marriage or that they survive. This cannot be determined from background data, but can be postulated for the sake of story development.

In view of the unanimous, and well studied, choice of the Star Trek management to maintain that Spock is a lone sibling, and in order not to destroy the personality dynamics developed within Spock as a result of being alone, we chose to postulate a single female sibling who is sterile, and who is unalterably opposed to Sarekís marriage, who also views Spock as a potential danger to Vulcanís social structure. She is more utterly estranged from Sarek and Spock than Spock was from Sarek. Spockís knowledge that this blood relative exists and his certainty that she cannot he persuaded too come home serves to intensify the personality dynamic that the Star Trek management so carefully fostered.

Thus we will justify TíYuzetiís existence, and the existence of her daughter, on two levels; the logical consistency of the Vulcan background and the artistic integrity of the basic material established by Star Trek management, i.e. Spockís singular loneliness.

Let us now examine what may be deduced from the inherent seven year cycle.

Here we must draw upon other sources for additional background information. It has been established, 2. and generally accepted, that Vulcans live an average of 250 years and begin to show signs of "Middle age" after 100 years. 8. No great disparity has been established between the "standard year," the Terran year, and the Vulcan year. We may assume that the variance is no more than 30% and need be considered only when discussing a period of more than one lifetime. These three year-lengths are "comparable."

We will further assume that all quotations involving Vulcans have been adjusted to the standard year which will be taken to lie between the Terran year and the Vulcan year. We will further assume that the standard year is an average of the years of all Class M members of the Federation. We will assume that the use of the standard year introduces no more than a 10% error in the result of any calculation pertinent to this argument and that for the sake of this argument such an error is negligible.

Let us test this assumption. If first pon farr occurs at age 30 standard years (abbreviated s.yrs.) with an uncertainty of Ī10%, that introduces an error of three s.yrs. It makes no difference if the true median age for first pon farr is 27 s.yrs. or 33 s.yrs. because 33 s.yrs. is appreciatively less than 64 s.yrs. If first pon farr occurs at a median age of 64 s.yrs., with an uncertainty of Ī10%, that introduces an error of 6.4 s.yrs. This is also negligible as the spread is then 57.6 to 70.4, which doesnít overlap the 30Ī3 curve.

If the average life expectancy of the modern Vulcan is taken as 250 s.yrs., and first pon farr can be expected at about 60 s.yrs., then there is an average of 190 s.yrs. of life after first pon farr. It seems preposterous to assume that all 190 years are fertile years.

The differences between human and Vulcan are great but the similarities, while more subtle, are also great. There exists a viable hybrid.

We have observed outward signs of physical aging in Vulcans both in "Journey to

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Babel" and "The Deadly Years." The assumption that there is no inward aging would be difficult to justify. But the assumption that the aging process follows the human curve would also be difficult to justify.

We have observed that "middle age" begins after 100 s.yrs. We have observed one case of middle-age-type heart difficulty at age 102 s.yrs., though that was considered early for such an affliction. Let us assume that this is roughly comparable to heart problems at age 45 for a human. 9. So the first signs of aging may be expected in a Vulcan at approximately 130 s.yrs.

If we assume the aging curve for Vulcans and humans are analogous and physical degeneration sets in roughly simultaneously with the "change of life," this would mean that Vulcan males begin to experience a decline in fertility after age 130 s.yrs. But an exact analogy can hardly he expected, so let us add roughly 25% to 130 years and estimate a very approximate 165 s.yrs. before a Vulcan male can expect a decline in fertility with a concurrent lengthening in his personal pon farr cycle. But he wouldnít expect the cycle to disappear until extreme age enfeebled the body.

Given a first pon farr at 64 s.yrs. and a decline at 165 s.yrs., we may estimate a very rough 100 years of fertile life for the "modern" Vulcan male. This means as few as 14 fully fertile populations by the seven year cycle, or as many as 50 by the two year cycle. 10. (I choose to deal with round figures as much as possible.)

These figures hold only for the "modern" Vulcan raised on balanced diet and with the benefit of modern medicine both preventive and therapeutic. (see Part II.) The number of fertile copulations a primitive Vulcan would average would be much smaller. But, let us work with the maximum number of 50 fully fertile copulations. If we find 50 fully fertile copulations to be insufficient, we know that we must lower the age of first pon farr.

We will add 50% to the number of fully fertile copulations to account for the tail-off as fertility declines and the pon farr cycle lengthens. So we will give a modern Vulcan male a potential of 75 fully fertile copulations, bearing in mind that this is an absolute maximum.

Now, we must draw heavily on a very shaky analogy. Any serious disagreement with this argument will probably center on this section. We must deduce the mechanism of Vulcan reproduction by analogy with the human mechanism. The validity of the analogy is supported by the unexplained and apparently unremarkable existence of a viable hybrid.

By this analogy, I postulate that the male Vulcan produces vast quantities of life cells comparable to sperm, and that the act of copulation deposits a large number of these cells within the female.

I postulate that the female produces life cells singly as does the human female. These cells have characteristics roughly comparable to those of the human ova.

The reverse, many ova and fewer sperm, might be acceptable because it would result in a high number of multiple births. This might be compatible with the known ruggedness of Vulcan physique. However, if all Vulcans had two or more twin brothers and sisters, and Spock had none, it would certainly have been mentioned. Therefore, I presume that the incidence of multiple births is higher among Vulcans, but not so high that the single born is an oddity.

Again drawing on Vulcan-human analogy, let us attempt to establish the average size of a Vulcan family, assuming no attempt at population control. (see Part IV)

The comparable fertile lifespan of the human male can be taken to be from 18 to 60 years (Terran years) or approximately 42 T.yrs. During this time, assuming early

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marriage and no contraception, a fertile couple can expect 10 to 15 pregnancies. But the number of copulations is much higher. Assume 9 times a month for 42 years or 4,536 copulations per 15 pregnancies. This represents a ratio (in round figures) of 300 copulations per pregnancy. Of course, this is misleading as it ignores the factor of female fertility.

However, it is informative because fertilization is a statistical process among humans in the primitive state where no knowledge of means of affecting fertility exist, and it is on this statistical process that racial survival has rested since the species became identifiable.

We draw on our analogy to postulate that reproduction among Vulcans is similar enough that analogous statistical laws apply.

If 300 copulations are required to produce one pregnancy and a fertile male only copulates 75 times in his life, he may have at most one child. Under primitive conditions, the race could not have survived. Obviously the race has survived. Therefore, we must modify our statistical ratio.

One modification is obvious. On a two year cycle of the male, pon farr would not occur during pregnancy and possibly not during lactation, assuming a roughly comparable gestation period.

The human male wastes approximately 100 copulations per pregnancy, assuming 12 infertile months per pregnancy. That reduces the ratio to 200 copulations per pregnancy.

That still isnít nearly enough for racial survival.

Therefore, there must be another factor operating on the Vulcan statistical distribution.

Let us assume that, since the Vulcan maleís reproductive drive is radically different from the human, the female cycle may also be different. Let us assume that the female cycle is tied to the male cycle . . . that the imminence of any pon farr male triggers female fertility 11., provided she is on the proper segment of her fertility curve. Let us assume that the Vulcan female also has a fertility cycle that is much longer than the human femaleís cycle. (see Part VI)

This means that every copulation of the Vulcan male occurs during the fertile period of his female. (see Part IV)

The human femaleís fertile period is independent of the maleís and lasts for approximately 6 days of the month. We may assume that 3 copulations would occur during period under random conditions.

Assuming 15 pregnancies, for a human couple, and 12 months infertility per pregnancy for a fertile lifetime of 504 months (42 years, 18-60) we get 324 months of high fertility per fertile lifetime. Assuming 3 copulations per 6 day fertile period over every one of those 324 months, we get 64 maximum fertility copulations per pregnancy. Of course, a human male could have more than one wife and many more than 15 children but weíre averaging for humans and maximizing for Vulcans to get an order-of-magnitude estimate.

Transposing to a Vulcan lifetime, this means that a fertile male will copulate 75 times under maximum fertility conditions at a rate of 64 copulations per pregnancy, implying 1 and possibly as many as 2 pregnancies per lifetime. That is still not enough to permit racial survival. Not every pregnancy goes to term. Not every child survives to maturity, especially if sexual maturity occurs at age 64, the rate would be very low.

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There must be yet another factor at work regulating Vulcan fertility. To find that factor, let us draw on Vulcan telepathy.

Nature operates statistically toward the survival of a species, even on Vulcan. Those who had more children would have more grandchildren, and the factor which allowed them to have more children would diffuse and eventually dominate the gene pool.

To counteract the infertility that results from the pon farr cycle, I postulate that nature endowed Vulcans with a sort of contact telepathy which serves a number of purposes in the area of reproduction. 12. Its primary purpose is to provide the mechanism by which the femaleís fertility is triggered. Its secondary purpose is to assure mutual sensitivity so that every copulation is perfected for a maximum chance at fertilization. (see Part III)

Let us assume that this factor, coupled with unusually long lived and vigorous sperm, boosts Vulcan racial fertility 50%. The average male Vulcan could still only expect 4 children in his entire lifetime.

Weíre approaching the right order of magnitude, but we still havenít reached it. Even assuming the Vulcan sperm live two or three female cycles, immune to or out of reach of the female menstrual chemicals, racial fertility is still too low.

Terran species who experience rut generally do so on a seasonal basis, and are not generally subject to total madness that must end in copulation or death. 13. The females produce litters at least once a year. Larger animals such as the elephant and the whale produce one or two offspring, but do so on a regular basis. Herd animals such as horses, cattle and deer generally have a large number of females for every male. But the young are produced during the season most hospitable for survival. And they grow to independence in a relatively short time.

An intelligent species of bisexuals whose males experience rut out of step with the planetary seasons and whose incidence of multiple births is not remarkable, or consistently high is going to have a fertility problem.

The ova might become more susceptible to fertilization so there would be fewer wasted copulations. But this would increase the incidence of fertilization by weak spermatozoa, thus decreasing the survival rate of infants or increasing the rate of propagation of undesirable characteristics.

Another compensation would be increased fertile lifespan. (see Part II)

So weíve accomplished our first goal.

If the Vulcan male living away from home experiences pon farr only every seven years, maximum, and the minimum duration of the pon farr cycle of 2 years is too long for racial survival, and not every male would live at home or sustain a two year cycle, or survive to age 165, then we must assume that the pon farr cycle would begin as early as possible.

Let us see how an additional 30 years of fertile life would affect Vulcan racial fertility.

An additional 30 years would add 15 copulations per lifetime . . . but these are not 15 equivalent copulations to be added to the adjusted figure of 75 copulations per lifetime, but 15 copulations during the period of maximum vigor. Add 15 to 50 to get 65 maximum fertility copulations per lifetime. This is adjusted by 50%, adding 33 equivalent copulations per lifetime, to account for the tail-off as fertility declines and the pon farr cycle lengthens. This gives 98 equivalent copulations per lifetime. 14.

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Assuming a slightly more susceptible ova, this gives us 2 perhaps 3 pregnancies per full Vulcan lifetime. If we double this to account for the effect of telepathy and longer lived sperm, we get 6 pregnancies (not mature children) per lifetime of a maximally fertile couple. This would be acceptable in a modern society where every pregnancy has a better than 50% chance of producing a mature offspring. But in the brutal, primitive subsistence economy of the bush tribe, it wonít do since the corresponding figures for a bush tribe would be 40 fully fertile copulations instead of 98. (see Part II)

We may postulate that due to their more rugged physique, Vulcan women have a better ability to carry a pregnancy to term even in a hunting and gathering economy. We may postulate a higher incidence of multiple births, especially among overworked and underfed women. We may postulate a higher survival rate of Vulcan infants due to that same rugged physique. We may postulate a faster pon farr cycle among overworked and underfed men . . . especially in the early years of their lives.

And taking all these factors together, we may conclude that the Vulcan race is viable . . . just barely. Provided the pon farr cycle begins early. There would be a strong selection factor for this tendency.

It may not have been unusual for the overworked and underfed offspring of overworked and underfed parents to begin the pon farr cycle in their twenties. The effect of cultural affluence would be to lengthen the post-adolescent pre-pon farr interval. Hardship brings early puberty and early death.

We have accomplished our first two goals. We must further establish that all Vulcan males are mated at an early age.

In "Amok Time," it was stated that the Rites of the Marriage Ceremony come down from the dawn of time. They are obviously a means of curbing the wild, animalistic instincts that are triggered by pon farr. The pon farr male is quite ready to fight and kill for female he wants. What happens if an unattached male goes into first pon farr and desires somebody elseís wife? Every male will guard his wife for his own use 11. in an instinctive reaction that has nothing to do with love-jealousy as humans understand it. The species has a built-in drive to reproduce. The interest is not so much in the pleasure of copulation as on the successful impregnation. (see Part IV)

Therefore, one of the inter-cultural constants found everywhere on Vulcan from the dawn of time (even stronger than human incest taboos as some human tribes practice incest regularly) would be the absolute necessity to mate a boy before he approaches puberty. The age of this attachment ceremony was probably chosen during earliest times when pon farr began soon after puberty. The means of attachment is provided by nature . . . the telepathic faculty whose primary purpose is to increase racial fertility. (see Part III)

Two minds are joined, even though they are just children, in such a way that the male will covet no female but his own even unto death. Thus the stability of the society is assured.

Now, given that first pon farr occurs around 30 years of age or possibly younger, and that all Vulcan children are mated at an early age, it follows that Sarek was married previous to his marriage to Amanda.


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PART II: The Effect of Technology on Fertile Lifespan

Let us consider the effect of developing technology on Vulcan racial fertility. This will account for increasing knowledge of hygiene, therapeutic, preventive, and geriatric medicine as well as the increasing ease of living . . . higher quality nutrition and a dependable food production, storage, and supply system.

What would be the natural lifespan of a Vulcan in a primitive hunting and gathering economy? A reasonable estimate can be made from analogy with humans. Under primitive conditions a human male who lived to 35 or 40 years would be considered fortunate. This is a roughly 2/3 of the way to the "end" of his fertile lifespan.

If we look at the history of increasing lifespan on Earth, we see that the greatest strides have been made just subsequent to the industrial revolution. That is, the major increase in human life expectancy occurred during the twentieth century.

Toward the end of the twentieth century, the infertile, declining years of a manís life were being lengthened and made more productive but the fertile lifespan had approached a maximum which may be considered an inherent characteristic of the species (with room for racial variation). Letís take this figure to be approximately 60 years.

If we take 165 as the "end" of the Vulcan fertile lifespan and assume analogy with humanity, 2/3 of 165 is roughly 110.

The average, primitive Vulcan would have considered 110 a proper old age. The remaining 140 years are the fruits of technology.

So, a primitive Vulcan male would have had 50 (110-60) fertile years of life or at most 25 fully fertile copulations. This is too low for racial survival. (110-30 = 80 years or 40 copulations for the primitive Vulcan male if pon farr starts at 30.)

As technology increased the total lifespan, the fertile lifespan would increase to age 160 after which total lifespan would continue to increase while fertile lifespan would remain unchanged.

Therefore, primitive Vulcans would have had, at best, an underpopulation problem while modern Vulcans would share the problem for different reasons.

Part III: The Role of Telepathy

Telepathy, natureís answer to Vulcan infertility, has been impressed into the service of Vulcan society.

There are many different Vulcan mental disciplines, and of these, several employ telepathy to one degree or another. We have seen Spock implant ideas in "The Omega Glory," "By Any Other Name," and "A Taste of Armageddon." And by another method in "Spectre of the Gun." We have seen him extract information in "Mirror, Mirror" and "Dagger of the Mind" and by another method in "Patterns of Force". We have seen him engage in conversation in "Is There In Truth No Beauty?", relieve pain in "The Empath," and weíve seen varying degrees of mind-meld in "The Paradise Syndrome," "Is There In Truth No Beauty?", "The Devil in the Dark," "Changeling," etc.

Weíve heard mention that non-Vulcans have gone to Vulcan to learn Vulcan mental shielding techniques in "Is There In Truth No Beauty?" and that these techniques are, at least partially, the result of the need to counter the disturbance of otherís emotions. The channel to a Vulcanís emotions is through his telepathy.

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Vulcan society has used this channel to solve one of humanityís greatest problems, sex education of the young. 1. At an early age, usually around seven s.yrs., Vulcan children are "mated" in an engagement ceremony which is more than a betrothal and less than a marriage ("Amok Time"). This ceremony takes place before the onset of puberty in order to avoid the risk of premature arousal of sexual interest. 1.

The dominant event of the ceremony is the "touching" of minds. The children become "never and always touching and touched" implying that theyíve never experienced physical contact and yet are in constant mental contact (of a sort).

Since the most effective telepathic contact in the Vulcan mode requires physical contact, this state could only have been established through a third party. This third party will be termed the Official. (Within the framework of Kraith, this Official would be a Kataytikh.)

The Official establishes the state of "always touching" and then, in contact with both of the children who are not in contact with each other, he implants the geographical tie, so that at the onset of first pon farr, they will both be drawn to the place appointed. Then they are both free to go about their lives in the surety that, at the proper time, they will both return to the appointed place.

We know that the parallel Spock drew with the migrating animals was misleading in this regard, because when he confronts TíPring he affirms, "We meet at the appointed place." To say that a place is appointed is to imply that someone appointed it and not that it is the focus of a natural homing instinct.

The true natural homing instinct is toward each other, but if both subjects are moving, they may waste valuable time. However, if both move toward a mutual goal, meeting is assured. In the case of two adults who contract a second marriage, there is no Official necessary, and they choose their own appointed place.

The Officialís third job is to give each child a complete sex education. The male learns to understand and the female learns to understand, and, to a certain extent, to control male reactions. They learn the physiology and psychology and all the norms and the social mores.

But all that the children remember is that the knowledge will be available when it is needed. All curiosity about the subject is erased by an impression of satisfied curiosity.

In addition to the practical sex education, the Official also gives the children the complete legal and ceremonial history of marriage. They learn the ritual speeches, a knowledge of their rights . . . and the male learns the use of the ceremonial weapons used in the challenges.

This type of skill transfer is possible because of the Vulcan brain. Spock could sight-play a complex piano waltz when he obviously doesnít spend most of his time practicing piano ("Requiem For Methuselah"). A Vulcan acquires a skill and it doesnít deteriorate markedly with time. He doesnít acquire it by the same repetitive training that a human does but merely sees what must be done and does it. A weapon skill could be telepathically impressed on such a brain . . . especially at an early age.

All of the knowledge provided by the Official becomes available during the onset of first pon farr. One of these items of information would be the symptoms of pon farr. This could explain why Spock waited so long to request leave. Failure to recognize the earliest symptoms might be quite common. Or his dual heritage may have altered the pattern enough so that there was confusion . . . or an emotional reluctance to admit the fact which

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wasnít undeniable. (see Part VI)

Spock also insisted ("Amok Time") that Vulcans did not and could not discuss the subject . . . even among themselves. If itís not discussed, how is it taught? The answer lies in the above thesis.

PART IV: The Vulcan Attitude Toward Planned Parenthood

As weíve seen, Vulcanís population problem has always been the opposite of that of Earth.

We have also seen that nature has striven mightily to overcome the infertility that has threatened the survival of the Vulcan species. How nature could have created such an infertile species is explained in Part V. But given the species and an ecological niche for it to occupy, its survival must be precarious at best.

Natureís most potent weapon against the Vulcanís desire to use their intelligence in choosing the time, place and number of births of their children is the pon farr. Natureís second most potent weapons is the telepathy. Between these two weapons, she has made it virtually impossible for a Vulcan to even consider interfering in any way with the natural process of procreation.

In this, nature may be her own worst enemy as modern Vulcans would undoubtedly use their enormous medical skills to stabilize the population at an optimum level. However, nature is well known throughout the galaxy as a blind mistress.

The Vulcan attitude toward the idea of interfering with intercourse is one of emotional revulsion turning to a deep horror and an inability to even consider such a proposal rationally.

Let us examine the mechanism behind this attitude.

The pon farr is an acute chemical imbalance that drives the male into a state of obsession. Itís more than rut. Because of the crucial population shortage, nature has arranged for every copulation to count. There must be the deliberate, serious attempt to create life. There must be the serious commitment to receive, shelter and raise a child to maturity. Commission of the act creates a total involvement on a much deeper level than the marital attachment of humans and that involvement doesnít depend on any emotional consideration for its viability. (Herein lies one of the important reasons why Vulcan could eradicate emotion from society without destroying society.)

The male must have this serious commitment to create life or the pon farr will not be broken. He will be spent . . . expended . . . and yet not returned to a normal state. The result is a long, lingering hypertension that may result in exhaustion and eventually death, a particularly horrible kind of death.

Telepathy enters the picture here. The male must know that the female is sincere in her commitment to his child. He must literally take her mind into his own and know every trait. Nothing may be hidden.

The females of Vulcan, therefore, are as severely limited on family planning as are the males.

If pon farr is terminated by a strong emotional shock, there is the danger of incomplete termination leading to hypertension of unpredictable degree. 6. Therefore, this

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method of termination is never employed deliberately. The victim himself could never advocate this method, and his associates understand that a swift, clean death is to be preferred. At the very best, a strong emotional shock 10. might sever the "always touching" tie, but leave the victim in a non-lethal state of tension in which heíd be sensitive to femininity.

Such a condition would be extremely rare, so rare that society would have no swiftly moving machinery for dealing with the situation. It could develop only after a pon farr, so the victim would be a responsible adult with full knowledge of the social implications of his condition. He would be under a social compulsion to form a new attachment as soon as possible.

The urgency of this need, however, would be regulated by several factors. The number of females available in his age group would be one consideration. Given that parents cannot attempt to choose the sex of their child, the male-female balance in a given generation would be statistically regulated. Given that Vulcans are basically warlike and have only recently begun to impose peace on their society, one would expect a preponderance of males. However, the analogy with humanity breaks down in this because of the lethal nature of the pon farr and the possessiveness of the Vulcan male for his woman. The first generation after the Reforms undoubtedly was under great stress during its first hundred years as it lost many males to first pon farr. But nature would have struck a new balance very swiftly. In modern times the ratio would tend to remain near 1:1 with perhaps a slight preponderance of females as a safety factor.

A second factor would be the proportion of time spent within Vulcan society. If he were not constantly exposed to married Vulcan females, he would constitute less of a social irritant.

A third consideration would be the estimated duration of his own pon farr cycle, and the completeness of the termination provided by the shock.

A male left in this condition would not be beyond the jurisdiction of the social machinery meant to deal with the unattached male. It might take some time, since Vulcans are loath to hurry and regard privacy as sacred, but eventually if he hadnít solved his problem, the machinery that normally deals with premature widower-hood and divorce would take over.

The difficulty of finding a second mate coupled with the inevitable necessity accounts for the small number of Vulcan males who have married outside their species. The most serious difficulty these women face is in the area of family planning, and this concludes the discussion of those difficulties.

PART V: The Origin of the Vulcans

In "Return to Tomorrow," Spock says that the existence of an ancient, humanoid race colonizing the galaxy in the distant past would explain certain anomalies in Vulcan pre-history. He implied that Vulcans arenít native to Vulcan. This would explain why the pon farr cycle isnít tied to Vulcanís seasons. It would also explain Vulcan cross-fertility with other humanoid life in spite of the copper-based blood chemistry.

Such an inhospitable planet as Vulcan would be colonized with heavy reliance on technology. If that technology collapsed, the colonists would be at the planetís mercy except for a few plants and animals that might survive with them.

The high solar radiation flux would increase the mutation rate. Dependence on

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native foods might increase the chemically-induced mutation rate. The mutations might leave fossil records vaguely resembling evolution, and their descendants might eventually discover the anomaly in the evolutionary record.

The hypothesis that Vulcans arenít native to Vulcan also explains the existence of the Romulans. The Romulans may not have been the descendants of a lost Vulcan colony ("Balance of Terror") but descendants of the same race that colonized Vulcan. Assuming a common parent for both the Vulcans and the Romulans, avoids an awkward rise-fall-rise sequence in the recent history of Vulcan technology.

PART VI: Infertility in the Vulcan Female

Let us attempt to deduce the length of the period of infertility in the Vulcan female cycle.

In "Amok Time," it was established that for a half-breed, the time between loss of control and death was about 7 days. We may presume that this is faster than usual for a Vulcan and further, that the time from onset of first symptoms to loss of control was unusually short. (see Part III) If these times had been of the usual lengths, Spock would certainly have taken steps to obtain home leave. He didnít attempt to obtain leave before he lost control. Therefore, he probably intended to request leave on the way back from the diplomatic ceremonies at Altair. 15.

It seems reasonable to suppose that Spock, having gained access to the engagement ceremonyís information, assumed he had two weeks when he only had one. Had it been two weeks, the Enterprise would have been on the way back past Vulcan at just the time when it became imperative for Spock to go home. This implies that a Vulcan male can wait two weeks if necessary. Indeed he may be highly motivated to wait. (see Part IV)

We may then presume that the female period of infertility doesnít exceed two weeks. If this is a minor per centage of the total cycle, the total cycle may be twenty, or even forty, weeks.



1. Fact established by this author for the purposes of this work only.

2. Fact established on the air, in The Making of Star Trek, or in the Star Trek Guide.

3. The Vulcan name sounds very much like "Tuesday" pronounced with a British accent.

4. Spockanalia #2, a fan magazine published by Devra Langsam.

5. A factor of three is assumed even though accelerating the average human maleís period by that factor would usually result in temporary impotence. Weíre attempting to estimate an order of magnitude of a maximum racial fertility for the Vulcans.

6. If we take the production sequence of the Star Trek episodes to be the real time sequence in which the characters experienced them, we see that although Spock was in his mid-thirties, two strong stimulations immediately preceded his first pon farr and may have precipitated the event which might have been postponed indefinitely because of his hybrid make-up. "The Naked Time" and "This Side of Paradise." Immediately

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following his divorce, two women affected him deeply, but not totally, "The Enterprise Incident" and "All Our Yesterdays." This may have been possible because he was in a hypersensitive state.

7. He could not have been originally mated to Amanda because heís so much older. Also, in "Journey to Babel," Spock asks Sarek why he married Amanda and Sarek answers that it seemed the logical thing to do at the time.

8. Spockís hair turns grey and lines show on his face only after McCoy proclaims him in perfect health for any Vulcan the high side of a hundred. "The Deadly Years."

9. Weíve no way to establish the human lifespan of the 22nd century. However, itís assumed to be in the neighborhood of 100 s.yrs. Perhaps as great as 140 s.yrs. in individual cases. Here, we must assume 100 s.yrs. for the average. This might be as much as 110 Terran years. Thus age 60 would be human "middle age". Since Vulcans live 2.5 times as long, we add 30 years. see also Part II.

10. Assuming one copulation per pon farr. Nowhere is this established. Presumably the culminating experience must be of the order of magnitude of the disturbance driving the male to the experience. If it is of that order, it should break the drive. Of course, that wouldnít apply to a half-breed. See also Part IV.

11. In "Amok Time," Spock was upset that Christine came to serve him food because he was not "hers." Presumably, on no other occasion has he objected to the proximity of a female. This must be a cultural value that is operative only during pon farr. What would be the basis for such a value? If a femaleís fertility is triggered by the presence of a pon farr male, and that fertility is tied to a long female cycle (see Part VI) a male would resent having his female rendered infertile to him because she had been triggered by another at the wrong time. This would be especially true if the postulated low birth rate were a severe, long standing problem. Of course, the pon farr male would also resent having his condition aggravated by the proximity of an unavailable female. Even if she were willing and free, she is unavailable because he is tied to another.

12. Spockís reluctance to employ mind-meld in "Dagger of the Mind" and elsewhere, and his statement that it is a deeply personal part of Vulcan private life is indicative of the basic function of telepathy in Vulcan society. That the intelligent, civilized Vulcans found other uses for the faculty is irrelevant. It is primarily connected with reproduction. Its use in the engagement ceremony supports this idea. (See also Part III.)

13. Certain migratory species will destroy themselves in the frenzied attempt to reach their spawning grounds but such spawning grounds are areas most hospitable to the growth of the young and such species generally have a high incidence of multiple births.

14. This adjustment is, of course, quite arbitrary, and the pertinence of it is subject to debate. We can justify it only by pointing out that we are dealing with truly statistical quantities and are interested in the ratio of copulations to pregnancies. Since the additional 15 copulations have a higher probability of producing a pregnancy than the other 50, we weight the tail-off factor to account for this. Weíre interested in estimating the maximum, not in calculating a precise mean.

15. It may be that during the first pon farr the victim is reluctant to succumb. His closest associates may be compelled to care for him over his strenuous protests. This would explain Spockís invitation to Kirk and McCoy to attend the wedding ceremony in spite of the fact that Kirk should have left Vulcan and warped for Altair. The best-man tradition would hold no meaning in Vulcan society but close associates would assume certain responsibilities for one another during the irrational state.

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by Jacqueline Lichtenberg

The following are some random and disorganized thoughts on the subject of the inheritance concept on Vulcan. This is intended as an informational discussion for potential Kraith authors.

The youngest son receives the Tradition from the Grandfather. When the Grandfather (this pertains to kataytikhe only) is his oldest and "wisest" you might say, he is best able to instruct the child in the nuances of the Tradition. This is the mechanism by which tsaichrani is stabilized some would say ossified or fossilized. It is the mechanism by which the establishment maintains itself in power. It is the inertial flywheel that makes Vulcan society slower to change than the Catholic Church. The inertial guidance system can be shunted out of the circuit only by means of the full-dress meeting of the Guardian Council as in Kraith III.

If the Grandfather trains a grandson and then dies . . . and subsequently the father has another son-- that youngest son does not carry the tradition in direct line. That youngest son does not "inherit" even though the "rule" is that the youngest son "inherits." Yet that youngest son is a kataytikh. He conducts Affirmations, officiates at Bondings, mediates Zyeto disputes, etc. He has a large part of the Tradition from his fatherís training and from his society at large (for he is expected to be more concerned with the present than with the past while those who "inherit" are expected to focus mainly on the values of the past.) It is said that the kataytikh preserves the past for the future--this is true of the Guardians of the Tradition. Kataytikhe who are not trained by their grandfathers but only by their fathers or their uncles are said to preserve the present for the future.

But, such a younger son (or middle son) doesnít have the oldest, unbroken line of the Tradition. The father may give the child to an uncle to train or to a non-relative Elder. But he wouldnít then inherit his mentorís tradition automatically.

If it should happen that an Elder-- say TíPauís father-- had no son, another kataytikh might give his son to TíPauís grandfather to receive the Tradition from him. That boy would then be quasi-adopted into TíPauís family and eventually become Kataytikh in her fatherís place-- but once removed from the direct unbroken line. That boyís sons would be given to TíPauís father to train. Thus TíPauís line becomes "extinct" in a sense. We now say that the adopted boy and his son are Kataytikhe of the Second Realm, meaning that they are once removed from the Tradition. (TíPauís and Spockís families are two of the three remaining families of the First Realm.)

If it should happen that the youngest son is of such lesser accomplishment than the elder son, the Grandfather may choose the elder son to inherit. This would mean keeping the elder son with him until he dies. Normally this would be cruel, as an 18 year old wants and has a right to a life of his own. But if the grandfather is very old and the younger son either too young to train adequately before the expected death or if he is incompetent, then the Grandfather may ask the elder to take the Tradition.

This must be voluntary for a number of reasons. 1. Such succession can only take

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place after a public demonstration of incompetence, which usually means a Zyeto match before the Council of Daughters. 2. It is not desirable to inherit, thus convincing an elder son who thought he was off the hook at the birth of a younger son that he must do this for the good of tsaichrani might not be too easy. 3. The elder son must then stay with the Grandfather learning, perhaps throughout his "free" years; those years between the completion of schooling and marriage -- the most precious and irreplaceable years.

It might also happen that there is such a disparity of personalities between Grandfather and youngest grandson that the grandfather would choose the elder grandson. Again the Council of Daughters would have to rule on the individual case.

This does not conclude the discussion of inheritance rights under Vulcan law and custom. As a general principle one can state that among Vulcans the most logical option will be the most suitable choice. Vulcans are never caught in the peculiar circumstance so prevalent under a "rule of laws not men" of having to do something unreasonable just because thatís the way the law is written. The ultimate court of Logic is the Council of Daughters. If their Logic cannot resolve a difference of opinion, Guardians may be asked to sit on the Council. There are many highly sophisticated methods for arriving at a compromise under such conditions. They never fail to retain peace and a reasonable amount of satisfaction on all sides of the issue . . . however, it can be a lengthy procedure, as Vulcans are not prone to haste in a crisis.

On the other hand, the Vulcan machinery of government is highly flexible and can move with lightening speed when necessary and can accomplish objectives utterly unthinkable in human society -- such as a 99.99% effective reversal of a cultural value in less than an hourís time (or the time necessary to contact every resident on the planet. One hundred per cent is achieved within the time necessary to contact Vulcan citizens living elsewhere.) Thus the problem of industrial pollution would be solved on Vulcan by re-evaluating the attitude towards and the philosophy of the use of all manufactured articles. The mechanism of this is revealed in small part in Kraith III, but much more remains to be said about it. Tsaichrani is at once the most conservative and "hide-bound" society of the Federation and also the quickest to accomplish widespread basic changes -- the most flexible and sensitive-to-the-will-of-the-people-and-the-imperatives-of-the-times.



"To every right there is a price. For the right to life one pays thrice: To the mother that bore thee, to the spouse that took thee, and to the death that awaits thee. Bargain well and be not blinded by the magnitude of the values, nor by infinitesimal profits."

from the Book of Imperatives



"As thee has shaped it, so must thee use thy Kraith." //Commentary: Harakn: Thee asks: What effect does thy shaping have on the use? Does not the outer shape reflect the inner mind?// ##Commentary: SíAíAdshi: This was meant to be a proscription on the use of technicians for the construction of Kraiths.## $$Commentary: TíPau: Yet this does not invalidate the Affirmation channeled through the acquired Kraith.$$

from the Book of Fragments

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by John Benson


A model for the genetic characteristics of the kataytikhe as a result of an extra sex chromosome is proposed. Using analogous examples from classical Terran genetics, this model accounts for the infertility of the kataytikhe females as well as the presence of and varying strengths of the kataytikh traits. An hypothesis on kataytikh spermatogenesis, involving the unequal meiotic division of the primary spermatocyte into a non-functioning polar body and finally through a subsequent division into two functional spermatozoa. Finally, the implications of kataytikh/human hybrid genetics are considered.


In the Kraith universe, as described by Jacqueline Lichtenberg, Vulcan (tsaichrani) is controlled by a caste called the kataytikhe, the "Guardians of the Tradition." Two distinguishing characteristics give the kataytikhe primary importance in the cultural tradition of the planet; first is the ability to control the Kraith and draw a large number of minds into the telepathic linkage necessary for the "Affirmation of the Continuity"; of secondary importance is the ability of the kataytikhe to create a "culling flame" keyed to anotherís mind. The other distinguishing trait of the kataytikhe is that all female progeny of the kataytikhe males are sterile. Because of this, kataytikhe males must marry exogamously to maintain the ancient family lines.

In Carol Lynnís pioneering work "Genetic Analysis of the Kataytikhe" 1. it is postulated that an autosomal polygene system is responsible for these traits. She further demonstrates conclusively that a single dominant or recessive gene model does not fit the data. Ms. Lynn based her study on the condition that the kataytikh traits are not sex-linked and therefore the sterility of the kataytikhe females is due to an hormonal imbalance. More recent information indicates that these traits are in fact sex-linked. My model takes this new information for its basis and only assumes that the basic laws of Mendelian Genetics hold.


The greatest problem for the non-Vulcan interested in Vulcan genetics is gathering information. Culturally, the Vulcans are reticent unless they deem that there is a logical necessity to reveal the desired information. In matters involving sex the Vulcans are even less communicative. 2.∑ Furthermore, if any works on Vulcan humanoid genetics exist they have yet to be revealed to any non-Vulcan, and even inquiry after such information has been politely rebuffed. In truth, the only sources of information on this subject are the Kraith histories of Mrs. Lichtenberg, et al, and from private communications with Mrs. Lichtenberg and Ms. Lynn. Due to this paucity of information all studies on this subject must be speculative until the Vulcans consider it useful for us to have the information.


If the kataytikh traits were a case of simple sex linkage, the male having a single X and a single Y chromosome, and the female having two X chromosomes and no Y chromosomes, the kataytikh gene system would have to be located on the Y chromosome. There could, therefore, be no inheritance of kataytikh traits among the female progeny of the kataytikh male,

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Figure 1. Punnett square gametes represented on axes assortment possibilities represented in center










except through the occurrence of a cross over gene exchange between the X and Y chromosomes on the spermatogonium, the cell from which the mature sperm develops.

To overcome these problems I hypothesize that the kataytikh male is trisomic 3. for the sex chromosomes; endowed with two Y chromosomes from his father and one X chromosome from his mother. In Terrans this chromosomal anomaly occurs with a frequency of approximately 1:550 males 4.. In a mating between such a trisomic male and a normal disomic (XX) female, one would obtain either a trisomic male with one X chromosome inherited from the mother AND two Y chromosomes from the father, or a trisomic female with one X chromosome inherited from the mother and one X and one Y chromosome from the father.


Figure 2.

The trisomic male XYY through segregation and independent assortment yields these gametes, XY, XY, YY, YY, X, X, Y, Y





























|_____ _____|


|_____ _____|


|_____ _____|


|_____ _____|



4 trisomic


4 trisomic


4 normal*


4 normal*


* Normal as to chromosome number

In humans the XXY condition is known as the Klinefelter syndrome, an individual of this type having non-functional male sex organs and an underdeveloped female body. Among Vulcans, as among certain other Terran creatures such as Drosophila, this XXY condition produces a non-functional externally female "Daughter of the Tradition".

To account for the non-occurrence of non-kataytikhe in one half of the progeny of matings between kataytikhe males and normal females (see Figure 2. again) one must consider the problem of kataytikhe spermatogenesis. (Figure 3.) When, through physiological changes the spermatogonium becomes a primary spermatocyte, it absorbs large amounts of nutrient into its cytoplasm, becoming greatly enlarged. Upon attainment of a certain, as yet undetermined, volume, a doubling of the DNA strands of each chromosome occurs and the process of meiosis is initiated. In the first meiotic division the primary spermatocyte divides unequally into a secondary spermatocyte containing an haploid set of autosomes plus two

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Figure 3. Vulcan Spermatogenesis

(RBW Note. Picture of three circles (A, B, and C) then a small one (D) above a large one (F) with an arrow to another small one (E) above nothing, then the large one with two arrows to two circles one above the other (G) and then two more with a line curving around each and then crossing through it to simulate a tail. (H))

YY &X are sex chromosomes

// represents 1. pair of autosomes

A. spermatogonium B. primary spermatocyte C. 1st meiotic division D. polar body E. degenerates F. secondary spermatocyte which undergoes second meiotic division yielding G. 2 spermatids which develop into H. 2 functional sperm


sex chromosomes and a small polar body containing an haploid set of autosomes and one sex chromosome. This polar body soon degenerates. The primary spermatocyte divides so that the majority of cytoplasm is localized in that part of the cell with the most chromosomes -- among the kataytikhe this is where the extra sex chromosome is. (Normal Vulcan males have an equal split of the cell and ultimately produce four functional sperm per original primary spermatocyte.) Then the secondary spermatocyte undergoes the second meiotic division to form two spermatids of equal size, each containing a haploid set of autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each spermatid then develops into a functional sperm and is shunted into the seminal vesicle where it remains inactive until the climax of the crisis of pon farr. Because of the unequal division of the primary spermatocyte, resulting in functional sperm developing only from that part of the dividing cell containing the extra sex chromosome, all sperm produced, when mated with a normal egg, will produce kataytikh progeny.

The two distinguishing traits of the kataytikhe -- the mass mind linkage ability and the ability to create the "culling flame" -- may be considered as quantitative phenomena. The group meld trait used in the "Affirmation of the Continuity" 5. may be accounted for as the normal telepathic ability of the Vulcans greatly enhanced and strengthened through the specialized training of the kataytikhe and the additive genetic effects of the extra sex chromosome. Furthermore, since there is exogamous mating with the spouses matched early in life, it can safely be assumed that the females chosen to wed the kataytikhe males will have exceptional telepathic powers. Therefore, the progeny of such mating through the action of chromosomal crossover, will have a chance of improving the genetic endowment and telepathic powers of their familial line. As for the other trait, that of creating the "culling flame" (CF), this ability is found in a limited and attenuated form in certain non-kataytikh highly trained Vulcan technicians. Because of this occurrence it may be assumed that a polygene system, on both sex chromosomes, accounts for the ability. With the mass of the Vulcan population lacking enough of the proper gene compliment to display this ability. There are qualitative differences between the "culling flames" of the kataytikhe and the non-kataytikhe though, the kataytikhe being able to produce a much finer, more closely tuned flame than the non-kataytikhe. Furthermore, since all kataytikhe display this ability, one may assume that it is inherited like the other trait through the diploid sex chromosome of the male sperm; and since female kataytikhe display as great a power as male kataytikhe in this ability one can also assume that the prospective mates of kataytikhe display this ability as well in their qualifying genetic endowment.

Since all kataytikhe display this trait one can assume that its incorporation or genesis on the sex chromosome occurred at virtually the same time as the original premature duplication and non-disjunction of the Y chromosome which resulted in the first kataytikh.

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If this trait had occurred in a female of the time it would have been thought advantageous for the kataytikh male to marry such a superior female and therefore the trait would have been strengthened in the subsequent progeny. Perhaps this polygene system caused the first duplication-nondisjunction in the occurrence of its full non-kataytikh strength. (e.g. if it was a 10 recessive gene system in its full strength, with anyone with 5 or more recessive genes displaying an attenuated ability, the full recessive compliment perhaps spontaneously causes premature duplication and nondisjunction yielding kataytikh sperm.)

Not all kataytikhe demonstrate the same competence or power in the control of these distinctive abilities. These differences may be explained by the subtle actions of different genetic modifiers on the total Vulcan genome as well as differences in the training of the child and in the environment of the developing kataytikh. That these modifiers do exist can be inferred from the case of the kataytikh-human hybrid, Spock of the line of xtmprsqzntwlfd, who displayed such skill at his first Affirmation that he received stateís honors, but who also said of himself, ". . . I am a throwback. Iím not very sensitive and my control is erratic, but I have compensating advantages." 6. He has both kataytikh Y chromosomes unmodified by any action of the Vulcan X chromosome which here appears to have effects upon the control of the kataytikhe powers. The other known kataytikh-human hybrid is TíZorel 7., a "Daughter of the Tradition," who is remarkable in that she displays emotion at times and, more amazingly, is fully female. This shows that the combination of the human and Vulcan X chromosomes can negate the desexing effects of the kataytikh Y chromosome, unlike the human Klinefelter. One can only speculate what the progeny of a mating between these two hybrids would produce. A human child? A four sex-chromosome kataytikh? Or what?

Of course, all this is just speculation and when the Vulcans deem it logical to tell us, it will probably prove, if not actually false, then at least oversimplified. Nonetheless, the field of kataytikhe genetics is an useful and enjoyable adjunct to theoretical genetics.


1. "Genetic Analysis of the Kataytikhe" by Carol Lynn, Babel II

2. see "Amok Time"

3. Triploid -- having one more chromosome than the normal number. In this paper, I will consider the sex chromosome, either XX (female) or XY (male), to be the normal disomic pair. See Strickberger, page 471.

4. "Report of XYY Chromosome Abnormality", U.S. Government Printing Office

5. see "Spockís Affirmation" by Jacqueline Lichtenberg, Kraith Collected volume one

6. see "Spockís Mission" by Jacqueline Lichtenberg, Kraith Collected volume one

7. see "TíZorel" by Jacqueline Lichtenberg, Kraith Collected volume one

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by Jacqueline Lichtenberg

I have long been deeply puzzled over Spockís derogatory attitude toward the obviously refined and potent medical practices of McCoyís sickbay. I have recently stumbled onto an explanation which I have decided to incorporate into the Kraith Series. This in no way changes any of the established verities of the series, but it is a guideline that opens a whole new frontier for our exploration.

The basis for the Vulcan Medical practices can be discovered by exploring the theory of telepathy a little deeper than it has hitherto been probed. The SF literature is replete with theories of how telepathy works, and many of those theories are remarkably close (not necessarily by accident) to some very good scientific data that has recently been published.

The book in question is: Psychic Discoveries Behind the Iron Curtain by Sheila Ostrander and Lynn Schroeder, I have not, as yet, obtained what I consider incontrovertible proof that any of the data revealed in that book is reliable. However, reliable or not, it does yield a wealth of story material that cannot be ignored.

One of the basic ideas which I would like to add to the Kraith Series is that all living things create in and around themselves a kind of bio-electric field which can be measured with modern electronic equipment. (This is fact.) Fictionally, from there we leap into the unknown. We shall assume that not only is it possible to heal the illnesses of the big-electric field by orthodox medical practices, but it is also possible to heal the illnesses of the body by healing the bio-electric field.

The humans of the UFP (and most other races presumably) have stuck to the methods of healing the body. The Vulcans abandoned that tack a long time ago, and concentrate their healing efforts on the bio-electric field. The methods the Vulcans use appear to others as "faith healing" and "quackery" do to us. The methods of "orthodox" medicine appear to the Vulcans as the "beads and rattles" of a "medicine man."

The reality of this bio-electric field in the UFP universe can be "established" by observing that Spock often uses his hands to "focus" telepathic effects at a distance. It has been shown in the above book that the human skin emits a great deal of energy (which can be photographed), and that the bio-electric field registers the effects of thought-at-a-distance. When somebody is thinking about you, there is a measurable change in your physiological state whether or not your conscious mind discerns it.

Since the shape of the bio-electric field of an amputeeís limb is clearly visible via this special photography, there has been some hope that research might turn up a way to regenerate amputated limbs. It is possible that Ruth Bermanís story, "Coup de Partie," may be outside the Kraith universe in this--as reliable regeneration might be a possibility for Vulcan medicine.

There are other phenomena connected to this ESP-medicine. Precognition fits neatly into the picture, leaving my Schillians looking like a rather brilliant piece of construction. The bio-electric field has been used to predict the development of cancer and other diseases.

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Dowsing and many "magical" practices which look like voodoo also fall into the picture.

The scope of this matrix of discoveries is limited only by the imagination. Starting with the "fact" reported in the above book, that ozone has a remedial effect on the bio-electric field, which in turn can affect the body, I wrote a short post-script to Devra Langsamís story "A Little More Than Kin, But Less Than Kind," which appeared in Eridani Triad III. My story, "TíMisoara Marenjas: The Logic of Compromise," proposes a Vulcan medical treatment of attempted suicide. Although that story is based in Devraís universe (distinct differences in characterizations are prominent), the basic idea pertains to Kraith and will hold in Kraith. Vulcan medicine treats the bio-electric field, not the body.

Using this theory, it is possible to explain how, as the article "In Defense of TíYuzeti" asserts, Amanda could have carried a green-blooded fetus to term. Although no known medical practices, even projected 200 years from now, could stretch to cover such an impossibility, a breakthrough on this bio-electric field phenomenon might well provide tools which would make that feat into childís play (no pun intended).

Star Trek, then, begins to perform one of the most common sf services. By depicting the Earth humans as clinging dogmatically to treating the body, while the Vulcans demonstrate that near miracles can be performed using a different theory of reality, Kraith-ST explores some of the consequences of a major choice which RIGHT NOW confronts us all--because orthodox science is four-square against anything smacking of legitimatized ESP miracles. Many scientific organizations have refused to listen to papers on this subject, or to publish discussions and research results. They are afraid. Are we?

There is, no doubt, a great deal more to be said on this subject. I have many half-baked theories in mind to "explain" exactly how Vulcan medicine achieves its effects. Kraith Creators are invited to explore this entire exciting field with us.



As Ssarsun has said, Zyeto is the hobby of most of the Vulcans. A full set of Zyeto draws upon each of the ancient Sources once. The original texts now reside in the Treasurehouse of the Ancients of Days, Library of Legions, Vulcan Planetary Capitol. Most of the quotes in this Ďzine are translated from the Vulcanir by Jacqueline Lichtenberg. Quotations marked with an asterisk were translated by Carol Lynn and Debbie Goldstein.

The Sources are:

The Book of Logic

The Book of Life

The Book of Books

The Book of Imperatives

The Book of Fragments

The Book of Joys

The Affirmation of the Continuity

Surakís Construct

The last two Sources are customarily quoted from one or two lines only. The quote from The Affirmation has been questioned as being ambiguous. The quote, "The Kataytikh lifts the Kraith that the future may drink of the past," may be taken to refer to ecology, for water purified by the gigantic distillery of a whole world has been recycled many times and thus is a symbol of the past continuing, and now, upon consumption, being used to nourish and sustain the future. To a Vulcan, the act of drinking may be taken to symbolize the participation in reality.

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by Jacqueline Lichtenberg

INTRODUCTION: When the peoples of the planet known in the Federation as "Vulcan" chose to emphasize logic as the primary motivation, they found it necessary to forge a tool of communication equal to the task. They deemed it insufficient to merely delete all emotion-words, for this would have left a void in the language. They would be unable to argue logically about emotion-concepts. Therefore, they re-evaluated the function of language in society and synthesized a new type of tool to replace it.

The fact that the "languages of Vulcan" are not true languages is the main reason humans have been unable to learn to speak, read, or write Vulcan. The native Vulcanís keen hearing and perfect memory are really secondary stumbling blocks. There are any number of mechanical aids which could he adapted to serve the human who wished to hear or produce the minutely differing Vulcan phonemes and any computer can handle the inventory of written characters without trouble. But a human mind which insists on a fixed grammatical structure and incessantly seeks to classify words and sentence structures with labels such as "agglutinative" or "isolating" and refuses to mix the two can never master any of the Vulcan languages.

One of the major sources of confusion among human scholars of the Vulcan languages is that they rarely admit that they must deal with three different languages instead of three forms of the same language. In truth, Middle and Low Vulcan are forms of High Vulcan, but the human mind cannot learn them in that context.

It is possible for a human to master Low Vulcan if he approaches it as an independent language composed of two independent parts, verbal and graphical. Once the student realizes that a transcribed sentence is a totally different kind of thing than a graphical sentence of identical content, the way to learning is open. The difference is akin to the difference between the verbal statement of an algebraic problem and an algebraic statement of the same problem. The graphical Vulcan sentence is one level of abstraction removed from the verbalized or transcribed sentence. This is true of Middle and High Vulcan as well as Low Vulcan. So, in effect, the Vulcan has six means of communication with his fellows available at all times. They are, in ascending level of abstraction and increasing precision of expression, Low Vulcan Verbal (or transcription), Low Vulcan Graphics, Middle Vulcan Verbal (or transcription), Middle Vulcan Graphics, High Vulcan Verbal (or transcription), High Vulcan Graphics.

This last, High Vulcan Graphics, is a more ultra-precise mode of expression than the most elaborate mathematics of the theoretician for it never has to resort to ordinary language for exposition or definition. While the spoken form of High Vulcan can, with difficulty, be analyzed into manageable grammatical forms, the written language is under no such linear constraints and can be tailored to the argument at hand.

Reading High Vulcan is very like reading a complex circuit diagram. The more involved an argument becomes, the larger the individual diagrams have to be. When they become too large, a map-like projection of the total argument is cut into segments and followed by close views of each segment. The resulting composition is apt to resemble a road

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atlas and the reading process is similar to plotting all possible routes from all points to all points.

Needless to say, the Vulcan eidetic memory and powers of visualization are what make such a tool useable in spite of its enormous symbol-inventory.

If the atlas approach is insufficient to deal with a problem, two dimensional expression is abandoned for three dimensions. The result resembles abstract sculpture and can be quite beautiful in itself.

Beyond the sculpture technique is the most powerful tool employed by High Vulcan Graphics, tokiel. Federation linguistics long supposed tokiel to be merely an ancient folk-dance art form akin to the story telling dances of many primitive peoples. The true subtlety of its use of four dimensions (three spacial and one time) and twenty-two color parameters as well as fifteen pure tone parameters was realized only after a native Vulcan found it logically necessary to explain the art to an offworlder.

What would take ten hours to read from a two or three dimensional presentation can be assimilated from a skillful tokiel artist in about an hour.

In conclusion, let us note that the serious student of the Vulcan languages must realize that for all its logic and order and in spite of all the elaborate rules for constructing words, phrases, sentences, as well as less easily defined grammatical units, the language retains many words, phrases, names and conventions from the ancient languages of the planet. The philosophy of the Vulcans is such that regional dialects are retained and the observance of local customs encouraged to the point where the only ones who believe in the homogeneity of Vulcan world culture are the offworlders.


PART I: The tripartite Vulcan language is constructed to facilitate logical, unambiguous communication.

This does not mean that there are no generic words but merely that generic words which are vague in human language are precisely defined in the Vulcan languages.

For example: All human languages have words such as "tree" which stand for all erect, leafy (or needled) woody vegetation. In addition, they all have words such as "evergreen" and "deciduous," etc., that divide all "trees" into several categories. Further, they have words such as "oak," "maple," "walnut," "apple," etc. which stand for specific varieties of "tree." Then there are words which apply across categories to specify the size or age of the "tree;" "seed," "sapling," etc.

The Vulcan languages also have the categorical equivalent of the word "tree," but such parameters as square-footage of leafy surface exposed, total size, total amount of fluid processed, etc., are specified precisely. Thus, to a Vulcan, there is no possibility of confusing a bush with a tree. Further subdivisions of the category "tree" are made with systematically increasing precision of definition so that there can be no doubt in classifying any particular growth . . . even if it proves necessary to use a standard measuring device. 4.

All human languages have the generic term "art" which covers a wide variety of activities. The prime similarity between these activities is that human hands fashion natureís raw materials to serve human needs. Thus, carpenters were considered artisans, potters were both artists and artisans. In later times, the term, artist, came to be applied specifically to those individuals who created beauty from raw materials ranging from pure sounds to paint pigments.

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Such evolution of terminology is found in the pre-Reform Vulcan languages and some of the conceptual bases of these terms survived the Reforms. One point of confusion in human scholarís work on the modern Vulcan languages, Vulcanur, Vulcanar, Vulcanir (Low, Middle and High Vulcan), is a lack of understanding of the Vulcan concept of "art." This confusion arises from human scholars who claim that the Vulcanur term for "art" contains an inherent ambiguity in that it refers not only to those who create "beauty" (poets, musicians, dancers, painters, etc.) but also to those who merely create (the generic term "artisan") as well as to those who are primarily engaged in the applied sciences and a profession peculiar to Vulcan, applied philosophy. 1.

Thus, many human scholars hold that the Vulcanur term for "art," tíseluret, is so broad and ill-defined that it in truth has no meaning or is hopelessly ambiguous.

Let us examine the word tíseluret for a more specific definition, and then try to discover the common element referred to in these diverse occupations.

To do a sememic analysis on a Vulcanur word, it is necessary to understand the formation of such words. The Vulcan languages are composed of a plethora of minutely differing phonemes each of which is related to a specific concept. For example, every occurrence of the phoneme, /tí-/ or /-t-/, refers to some aspect of creativity. The /:Tí-/ prefix to all feminine names is related to one aspect of creativity roughly glossed as "completion." But the feminine prefix, /:Tí-/, is phonemically distinct from the prefix /Tí-/ which refers to a particular type of creative logic and is used on such words as TíKiamuth. However, the human ear/brain combination is unable to detect the distinction between the two prefixes as it is a matter of minutely differing degrees of aspiration. 6.

The main, and most important difference between Vulcanur and the Middle and High versions, Vulcanar and Vulcanir, is that the number of minutely differing phonemes increases with the increasing precision of the language. Vulcanar demands approximately 2/3 more phonemes than Vulcanur. Vulcanir demands fully twice as many phonemes as Vulcanur. Finer precision is possible in Vulcanir, but greater care must be taken with annunciation. Vulcanir requires an effort on the part of both speaker and listener which is not always justified by the content of the utterance. For this reason, Vulcanur is the most widely used daily language.

However, even the relatively "stripped" Vulcanur presents many problems to the human scholar. The phonemic differentiations are often too fine to hear and the corresponding semantic differentiations are often impossible to comprehend. Thus, it has become common practice to place such minutely differing sememes (phonemic-semantic units) into larger units which are distinguishable and retain as much semantic content as is comprehensible to the human mind.

It is this policy of assimilation which has led to the charge of "ambiguity" against the Vulcanur term tíseluret. Let us analyze the meaning of this word.

/:tí-/ creation

/-sel-/ beauty

/-u-/ from

/-r-/ passive sign

/-e-/ generic sign

/-t:/ creation

The colons indicate forms found only at the beginning or end of a word.

"Art" is the creation of beauty from that which has been created. Or an activity of an extremely general nature which is bounded on both sides by beauty.

Notice that /-sel-/, beauty, also contains an /-e-/. This /-e-/ is phonemically

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distinct from the generic sign and yet has the property of specifying a "general" beauty. This /-sel-/ refers not just to feminine beauty, not just to the harmony of sounds or colors, not just to a pleasingly formed object, but to all of these and many more.

But, the sememe, /-e-/, in /-sel-/ causes /-sel-/ to refer not merely to that which pleases the eye or the intellect, but also to the Vulcan concept of "true beauty" which may be extremely displeasing and nonetheless beautiful. Such beauty is usually found beyond the realm of the physical senses.

Our brains interpret the signals of our physical senses to present us with an operational view of reality. This we call subjective reality. Objective reality may be quite different. If our brains are presented with a radically new subjective on reality, insanity may result . . . even though that view may be closer to objective reality. To a Vulcan, that which is closer to objective reality and yet remains functional is of a higher order of beauty.

Thus, even in the relatively imprecise Vulcanur, there can be no argument over whether a Medusan is "ugly" or "beautiful." He is both functional and closer to objective reality in that he has a directional/positional sense which humanoids do not possess. His appearance and viewpoint may displease the brain so severely that it ceases to function rationally, but the Medusan possesses the property /-sel-/.

To humans, beauty is an abstract concept; to Vulcans it is a large, but very clearly defined concept. The domains of definition of the human and Vulcan concepts overlap, but they do not coincide completely. The most comprehensible idea in the Vulcan concept of beauty is that of harmony with the operational modes of the universe.

A Vulcan considers the creation of beauty to be any activity which increases understanding of the operational modes of the universe, or which actively brings society or individuals into closer harmony with the universal modes.

The human concept of beauty is anything which creates a soothing emotional reaction in a relatively large number of individuals. A Vulcan can recognize beauty in a human painting which has qualities of line, color and composition that depict some actual harmony present in the universe. He can appreciate a painting that expresses something of fundamental importance to a society, i.e. a religious theme 7., but he will not be referring to the soothing feeling that viewing such a painting would give to a human when he calls it beautiful.

A Vulcan would find the same beauty in an equation that represented the time-rate-of-change in the position of an electron during a chemical reaction. He would perceive the same beauty in a report of a newly determined fifteenth digit of the vibrational fine-structure constant of a ditonium nucleus in a de-gravatized matter/anti-matter plasma.

Not all Vulcans have the intellectual capacity to perceive the beauty of a fine-structure constants, but not all humans delight in the Vatican Frescoes.

To a Vulcan, the person who paints a picture that pleases the eye and the person who adds one digit to a fine-structure constant are pursuing the same goal . . . tíseluret 8.. Both individuals are entitled to the appellation tíselurit, "artist."

Analysis of the word tokiel may elucidate this concept. 2.

/:t-/ creation /-i-/ specific sign

/-o-/ tradition /-e-/ generic

/-k-/ blending-combining /-l:/ harmony

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