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Sime~Gen(tm) Inc.

Where Sime and Gen Meet, Creativity Happens

Workshop: Choosing a Protagonist


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Yesterday, I started sketching the signup page for our Writing
School -- (you don't have to sign up, but if you don't you won't get
email telling you what is happening and when -- nor do you get a
chance to tell us what you want to learn about.)  This post, on
CHOOSING A PROTAGONIST is going to be posted as an example of what we
do instead of individual critique.

The Listserv WORK: topic mask (which no longer "masks" on this
version of listserv -- NEWBIES NOTE: "listserv" without the e on the
end is the name of a piece of software that runs on a server and
copies everyone on a list when you send one post to that server.)
The Listserv WORK: topic mask will soon have it's own LIST running on and that will reduce the amount of mail that members of
this List get.  And it will help you organize your mail.

The WORKSHOP LISTSERV will become one part of the Writing School.

MEANWHILE: here is a commentary on two items that have been placed
before me for analysis.  One is a published novel, the other is a
proposal for a Sime~Gen story (I think novel length) that we will
definitely want to post for you to read when it's finished.

Both share the same flaw, but in opposite manifestations.

One has a poorly chosen, weak protagonist.  The other has a poorly
chosen ULTRA-STRONG protagonist.

Both stories START in the wrong place because of the CHOICE OF

Beyond that, there are no similarities at all.  Still, both writers
need to reconsider the methods of creating and launching a
protagonist into a story situation.

First, the fan-story "outline".  It is a "typical Mary Sue" in the
making.  If that's what the writer intended, that's okay by me.  I do
adore Lt. Mary Sue, especially when well written.  But somehow I
don't think that's what this author really wanted to accomplish.

BTW: as a matter of policy, we don't "critique" on this workshop, and
probably will continue a similar policy within the writng school.  It
has been my personal experience that "critiquing" is not instructive
enough to be worth the time invested.

Instead of pointing out the weak spots in a story, we focus on the
underlying skills-sets that cause the weaknesses.  When the skills
become stronger, the product those skills produce will no longer be

Definition of "Lt. Mary Sue" -- the author's own alter-ego who
bounces into a setting created by another writer and proceeds to
solve most all the underlying conflicts built into the scenario
effortlessly because of his/her Galaxy Class Talents That Have Lain
Hidden.  (I just made that defn up -- you folks can share all the
other defns with each other -- the "Lt. Mary Sue" is a Star Trek
fanzine convention.)

How do you TELL if you've committed a Mary-Sue-ism?  Compare your
protagonist to the FORMULA for protagonist creation.

I learned this formula from THE FAMOUS WRITER'S SCHOO before I wrote
OPERATION HIGH TIMEL.  The protagonist of a short story has ONE
protagonist of a longer piece such as a novella can have TWO SUCH
CHARACTER TRAITS.  The protagonist of a long, involved, complex novel
might have THREE SUCH CHARACTER TRAITS.  Never any more than three.

Why?  Well, when this writing school gets going, I will be able to
answer that question succinctly in the School of Rathor using
Astrological jargon, (Sun, Moon, Ascendant) or Tarot symbolism (we
live in a three-D universe).  Right now, just master this notion and
practice applying it to your character development thinking.  Once
you've practiced this until it's second nature and your subconscious
does it automatically, then you can attempt various ploys for
violating this rule (some of them can be made to work in commercial
fiction, but not without the skills-strength developed by following
this rule of NO MORE THAN THREE.)

An underlying reason for the RULE OF THREE is that most people just
wouldn't consider it plausible and would bounce right out of the
story with a groan of disbelief.  Also, more "power" than that in one
person makes them someone who isn't likely to meet a real nemesis,
and thus readers won't believe the character has met a real

One of the THREE TRAITS is usually a FLAW, a CLASSIC FATAL FLAW, an
Achilles Heel of vulnerability.

generates the plot) and TWO SUBORDINATE TRAITS (that generate the

Thus you cannot choose the THREE TRAITS at random.  They are a
matched set.

How they "match each other" -- how they fit together and augment or
interfere with each other -- is a matter of ART.  This is where no
one can advise you -- and that is the reason that "critique" fails as
a teaching method for beginning writers.  If there is a mistake you
have made at this level of the story-conception, nobody reading what
you have written can TELL WHAT YOU MEANT TO WRITE.

Here's how I create the matching sets I use.  I look deep inside
myself and ask myself the following KEY QUESTION.

1.) "Why do I want to write this story?"

The answer to that question is the THEME of the piece, and it all by
itself generates the OPENING LINE where the CONFLICT that bespeaks or
illustrates the theme first begins.  That conflict is the conflict
that must be RESOLVED in the last scene of the story.

Now, in the case of a PROTAGONIST who starts the story with 5 Major,
Galaxy Class talents all fully developed and widely known and
acknowledged, and the story is about that protagonist ADDING A SIXTH
TRAIT -- a trait that is so rare you get one of them in a thousand
years of human history -- (an avatar-level trait) -- the conflict and
resulting story have to be about "Why Don't Humans Have 6 MAJOR

If the story doesn't address that issue, then the protagonist as
formulated (5 going on 6 traits) doesn't belong to that story, and
nothing the writer can do can hide that fact from the readers.

Such a story, about a 6-fold Protagonist, would have to include each
of those talents being challenged by an ANTAGONIST.  This would be a
novel longer than War and Peace -- something on the order of
Katherine Kurtz's Deryni series in length and complexity.

The "outline" (which was no sort of outline at all because it did not
display a cause-effect-chain of events started by the protagonist who
was opposed by an antagonist) which was presented to me had no
antagonist and no conflict whatsoever displayed.

The initial event hinted at was the meeting of two characters who
were matchmates, and one of them didn't want to get involved and the
other did.  (typical romance plot with some real SF teeth in it --
galactic repurcussions etc. )

The middle involved a knock-down-drag-out fight between them that had
to be broken up by an outside force.  (which is a plot-flaw of major
proportions but it can't be fixed because there is no plot yet --
which is okay at the early stages of development of a story.)

And the "resolution" is that the protagonist who doesn't want to get
involved goes away and studies some more and decides it's okay to get
involved.  That's not strong enough to carry a story with the kind of
potential power shown by the Situation described in the outline.
(yes, it had a dynamite SITUATION).

But I can't begin to help this writer develop this story because I
can't tell what story the writer wants to write.  Is it THIS PECULIAR
Or is it ESOTERIC TRAINING CAMP AT RATHOR?  Or what?  Maybe it's not
even THIS PROTAGONIST's story.

I already discussed what the beginning implied the story would be
'about' -- "The Plight of the Multi-Talented in a THREE-TALENTED

That story does not have a knock-down-drag-out battle at the middle
that is broken up by an outside force.

That story has a "middle" in which some of the TALENTS ARE
making a burden too great to bear, and the resulting desperate act
generates the resolution.  (what that resolution is depends on the
writer's personal philosophy of life -- but it has to resolve the
problem of being a towering misfit.)

Now, take the MIDDLE as outlined.  That is a knock-down-drag-out
battle-of-lovers that has to be broken up by an outside force.  That
is a TERRIFIC beginning to a story.  The MIDDLE of that story is
where the lovers (who hate each others guts beyond all belief) have
to join forces against the OUTSIDE FORCE that has interfered with
their "battle-to-a-resolution".  And THE ENDING is where they
vanquish the outside force working as a team -- and as a result end
up with the Situation they were trying to avoid.  Only now, because
of all that's happened in between, they can embrace those situations.

Or TAKE THE ENDING as outlined.  Multi-talented Protag acquires yet
another Galaxy Class Trait and thus decides the "fate worse than
death" is okay anyway.  To me that is the BEAR TRAP PLOT at it's

That's why I said I think maybe this is the outline to a story that
is STARTED IN THE WRONG PLACE.  There are three totally different
plots nascent within this outline -- one that starts at the beginning
as stated (two destined lovers meet and it's hate-at-first-sight for
one, and desperate love for the other), one that starts at the middle
as stated (knock-down-drag-out battle against a FATE WORSE THAN
DEATH), and one that starts at the ending as stated (PROTAG ACCEPTS
pivot-points that were outlined do not belong in the same story, even
a novel-length story.  Even in a story that is several novels long.

How would I solve this problem?  I'd re-cast the protagonist.  I
would choose a single Dominant Trait -- generate a plot-outline from
that single trait that would work to support the THEME I wanted to
discuss -- and look into what that plot-theme integration would
require to SHOW DON'T TELL various subtle complicating points, and
then-and-only-then I would imbue the protagonist with the
SUB-DOMINANT Traits I'd invent to support and illustrate those
complicating points.  And I'd put the rest of the material into the
file for future novels.

But there is another way to solve it.  You can keep the "Mary-Sue"
character, and make the story a "romp" for the reader, exaggerating
each of the routine elements in a Sime~Gen story to create a
parody -- in this case, the natural parody subject would be UNTO.
I'd fall off my chair laughing -- it would be such a delight.

But this outline didn't have the touches of humor that would lead me
to suspect that the author wanted to try that approach.

So there is a third way to solve it.  You can keep the Super-Hero
Protagonist and invent a Super-Villain to create a real battle with a
real threat to the Protag.  The style required for that would be High
Camp - like a Superman movie where the villains come from Krypton.
That's not my favorite sort of thing to read, but if it's well done,
I'd gladly revel in it.  But it's very hard to write, and I don't
know how to teach people do pull off something that -- delicate.
Broad farce is much easier in it's way.

Which brings us to the published novel -- no, not the one I
recommended workshoppers go find and read.  I'm giving you time on
that one.  This is one I'm not going to review.

Now, I have to admit this novel is in a very plain, mundane, setting
and has one, well chosen and carefully focused FANTASY PREMISE.  The
scenes track smoothly, the characters are deep, interesting and
well-thought-out.  Most analysts would probably conclude that the
flaw is in the PLOT.

But I don't think so because the author told me that the editor
reaquired major cuts and revisions before publication for reasons
having little or nothing to do with the content of the novel.

As a result, flaws emerged and became prominent that might not have
been visible in the book as originally written.

But working just from what I can see in the published book, I think
the problem is not a plot-problem at all.  I think it's CHOICE OF
PROTAGONIST again -- a very, very similar problem to the outline I
have just discussed, but in the opposite way.

Here is a published novel with a MAIN PROTAGONIST who has no
outstanding ABILITIES and only one trait of any interest -- which
trait the main character does not even know exists until more than
halfway through the novel (I'm only halfway through it at this
writing).  The book is 241 pages long, and I'm on page 123.  Because
of the way the beginning is structured, there is no way I know of to
pull this thing together before the end of the book.

I think the story BEGAN IN THE WRONG PLACE because the chosen main
POV character is not in fact the actual protagonist.

Because the POV character has no outstanding abilities to draw upon
at the beginning, the POV character can DO NOTHING about the
Situation that embroils the characters in the novel.

So for the first half of the novel, we have a HUNG HERO.

There are two ways to fix this.  Change the POV character to someone
who can and does act to change the situation.  Or re-formulate the
POV character to have a trait that can be used to affect the

As a result of this choice of POV character, the SITUATION does not
change before the halfway point of the novel because the POV
character has no power to change the situation.  Seeing as how a
"novel situation" MUST change with every SCENE, I would feel this is
a major flaw.

I think the story starts in the wrong place because The Initial
Situation is not generated by an act or decision of the POV
character, but rather is just something that happens TO that
character.  Then throughout the first half of the novel, the POV
character learns about the Situation, gleans and garners bits and
pieces of fact here and there, but is not actively or desperately
propelled into searching for that knowledge, nor in synthesizing the
bits and pieces into a theory upon which to act.  There is no urgent
and necessary MUST coupled to an equally urgent and absolute CANNOT -
thus no "tension," no "suspense" and that is because there is no

The main POV character is embroiled in a terrible situation and
doesn't even know it -- and so is not responding to that Situation in
any way.

The solution I would have employed, had this story been presented to
me in OUTLINE FORM, would be to move the OPENING of the story ahead
in the POV character's life to the point at which the ODD TRAIT
becomes known, and empowers ACTION.

The action the POV character chooses at that MOMENT OF TRUTH will
define the character's MAIN TRAIT, the PLOT, and the THEME.  Those
are the elements that weave together into an OPENING SCENE.  Without
those elements, you can't construct a NARRATIVE HOOK.

Which brings us back to the definition of PLOT that I've harped on
repeatedly in this workshop.  A plot is a cause-effect sequence.

The main POV character is the one who ACTS FIRST -- the person
attempting to impose their agenda on the course of events -- to get
things to come out in their own favor.  The VILLAIN or ANTAGONIST is
the one who is acted-upon and objects.  (it is quite plausible to
open a story with the Protag being attacked by the Villain or Antag,
but in that case, the Protag's chosen course of action sets the
agenda and announces the theme.  It is the protag's MOMENT OF CHOICE
which is the narrative hook and the springboard for the story.  If
the character being attacked can not act, that character is not the
protag or main POV character.)

In HORROR GENRE the main POV character starts out by doing or
choosing something that GETS THEIR FANNY CAUGHT IN A BEAR TRAP --
they choose to go into the haunted house at midnight, and thus get
trapped in a past-scenario where the ghosts live.  It is that element
of choice that makes them the protag.

In this published novel, there is one character who does choose to
stick his nose in where it doesn't belong and thus gets himself
"caught up in the affairs of wizards".  And throughout the first half
of this novel, he is acting boldly, while the main POV character only
reacts and accepts.

That is why I think many of the problems of this novel would have
been avoided had the main POV character been chosen differently.

No two writers work in the same way.  For me, very often, choice of
protagonist is subconscious and imperative -- that is, the CHARACTER
appears in my mind and demands that I tell their story.  But
sometimes I have the STORY and no character whose story it is -- and
I have to wait (sometimes years) for the character to appear.
Sometimes it's theme, something that I want to SAY, that propels the
story first.  But before setting hands to keyboard, these three
elements must be present and fitted together -- STORY, Character
whose story this is, and THEME (something to say about the
character's situation).  If they aren't fitted together in your mind
yet, you aren't ready to start writing.

Sometimes you can get the three elements to assemble into a cohesive
whole by moving the opening event of the story forward or back in

Where a story begins depends on WHOSE STORY IT IS.  Or whose story
this is depends on where it begins.  Either way -- these are not
independent variables.  You can start with either one, but once one
half of that equation is determined, the other half is fixed.

The same with beginning, middle and end.  Once you know where the
story begins, you know whose story it is, and that tells you where
the middle and the end must fall.

So look deep into your mind and fix one of these story elements.
Once you've decided which of the Ideas you have is the most important
to you, you then generate the other elements from that fixed one.
And never accept a critique or criticism that demands changing that
one fixed element -- but stand ready to change everything else so
that it matches the fixed element.

It's like getting dressed in the morning.  If you have decided you
must wear that red silk shirt, pick out everything else so it doesn't
clash with the red shirt.  Keeping in mind that different people have
different ideas of what clashes with what, be prepared for criticism
of your choices by making them carefully.  Always remember that
dressing, as writing, is mainly an ART.  There are no absolute rights
or wrongs.  There are no real "rules".  But there are effective ways
of achieving a specific result.

When you set out to learn these effective ways -- keep your attention
on the result you are attempting to achieve and judge the success or
failure of your efforts on how precisely you can control what result
you achieve.

The commercial artist is commercial because of the ability to achieve
specific and chosen results in an efficient and effective manor.  A
fan-writer has to be effective, but not necessarily efficient.  (but
I find it a lot more fun to write efficently)

One of the major, time conserving shortcuts is to understand how
choosing different characters in a given situation changes the story
you can tell, changes the beginning, middle, and end points, and
changes the theme and the plot-possibilities too.

TEST your work in outline form by asking yourself:

1) Why do I want to write this story?  (the answer to that is your
theme and the title and narrative hook - i.e. the answer is the
reason anyone would want to read that story)  Whatever you do, in
rewrite or outline, do not change anything to do with that reason why
you want to write this particular story -- or the whole thing will go
dead on you.  People call that writer's block, but it's only a

2)Whose story is this?  (the character whose actions change the
Situation with each PLOT EVENT.)

3)Have I formulated the characters properly (always remembering that
a story-character is not anything at all like a real person in
complexity)?  Is the protagonist in real jeopardy?  Do the supporting
characters have more traits, and more interesting traits than the
ostensible main pov character?  (that's one way to fall off the
conflict line -- to be lured away by a more interesting minor
character.  Make your minor characters minor, and less interesting
than the plot-moving characters.)

4) Do I have a Beginning that goes with the Middle that leads
naturally to a particular End?  (this is genre specific -- happy
endings require a sad-middle)

5) Test to see if the elements stated in your THEME, the reason why
you want to write the story, are SHOWN NOT TOLD by being represented
by and spoken for by appropriate characters.

(If you've spawned a 6-Trait character, you may solve that by
factoring that character into several characters.  One efficient
trick is to take the outline's Hero and factor that one person into
Hero and Villain (which is what Gene Roddenberry did to get Kirk,
Spock and McCoy, or as he said repeatedly in public, "Three parts of
myself.")  Test to see if your POV character's assumptions are
challenged by a suitable antagonist.  (the outline analyzed above has
no antagonist at all - everyone's on the same side, even the people
who are fighting.  They just disagree.  They're not devoutly
dedicated to mutually exclusive philosophies and agendas.  The
published novel's first half has no antagonist, and thus no conflict

6) Then cast your narrative hook.  What is the story about?  And keep
casting that hook until you find the correct place to BEGIN telling
the story.  That place is where the elements that will conflict to
generate the plot FIRST COME IN CONTACT.

Run these 6 tests before you begin to write, and you'll save yourself
5 or maybe 6 rewrites and avoid all danger of running into writer's
block.  Oh, you'll still have to rewrite, maybe more than once, but
your rewrites will each be a measurable improvement, not just a
re-arrangement of your mistakes.  That keeps your energy level high
and makes it much easier to do the work of writing.

Live Long and Prosper,
Jacqueline Lichtenberg





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This Page Was Last Updated   09/18/00 11:13 AM EST (USA)